Sexual dimorphism is a phenomenon that outlines the differences in structure and physical characteristics between male and female members of the same species. It can be seen by differences in size, coloration or body structure between the sexes. This occurrence had been observed during the experiment to determine if sexual dimorphism could be noticed in multiple samples of Artic Fox (Vulpes lagopus) jaws, especially if one sex of the Artic Fox has a stronger jaw. The distance of the in-lever and out-lever of female and male fox skulls were measured, as well as photographs of fox skulls were used to measure bite force. The class data used for the experiment showed evidence that male Artic Fox have larger mechanic advantage of the jaw as well as a bigger size of the origin area of the temporalis muscle, which gives them a stronger jaw. The class data collected were then analyzed using a t-test. The results for both averages showed a p value less than 0.05, which reveal evidence that the difference in bite force between each sex is significant. The data suggested that the differences in the feeding structures of the Artic fox have resulted from sexual selection, food specialisation and dimorphic niche. These three hypotheses help to understand the results obtained and indicate that bite force in Arctic fox is sexually dimorphic.
Sexual dimorphism refers to the difference in morphology between both males and females of the same species and could be express by different size, colour, odour, etc. It is, according to Charles Darwin, common throughout the animal kingdom and has been a major focus of evolutionary studies. (Reece et al., 2013) This phenomenon is a consequence of both natural selection and sexual selection and is due to a difference between the secondary sex characteristic of males and females. In other words, these distinctions appear during puberty as a result of hormone stimulation. (Campbell, 2010) A common example...