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Biology 200 Final Review Guide

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Midterm #1 What are the overall (summary) equations for photosynthesis & respiration? Photosynthesis: NRG + 6CO2 + 6O2 = C6H12O6 + 6O2 Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

 How does the molecular structure of the water molecule explain water's special properties as a solvent??
 hydrogen bonding – dissolve substances, cohesiveness (capillary action, surface tension), water expands slightly in the solid phase (less dense as a solid)

What's an autotroph? A heterotroph? Can an organism be heterotrophic for one element and autotrophic for another?
 Autotroph – chemically self-sufficient, independent of other organisms for other complex nutrients (but does not mean it needs nothing!) Heterotroph – depends on food molecules from other living things Plants are autotrophic for carbon but heterotrophic for nitrogen

What is an endergonic reaction? An exergonic reaction?
 What’s the source of energy release in chemical reactions? Rearrangements of Protons? Neutrons? Electrons? Making bonds? Breaking bonds?
 Endergonic Reaction – absorb energy Exergonic reaction – release energy, spontaneous Making bonds – energy released (exergonic), breaking bonds – energy absorbed

What's a primary producer? A primary consumer? A tertiary consumer?
 Primary producer – produce the primary good products of an environment form physical sources of NRG Primary consumer – eat primary producers

What is the (net) "primary productivity" of an ecosystem? Measurement of the rate of which new organic material is created from photosynthesis and chemiosmosis in producer organisms (NPP = PP – Respiration/Maintenance of tissues = what’s available to consumers, total biomass is limited by the NPP)

What are the trophic levels of an ecosystem? Trophic levels – different feeding levels

What is the "rule of 10?" Which biological processes account for the rule of 10?
 Moving up each trophic level, the biomass decreases by a factor of 10 because of heat and activity losses at every...

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