Five factor trait theory, and 3. Temperament model of personality can be adapted to account for variations in the personal, societal, and cultural factors discussed in this paper. How does the gene-environment interaction influence personality? A person’s genetic make-up in combination with a person’s environment form an individuals personality by interacting with each other. Abnormal or radical behavior could therefore “be explained by hereditary factors in combination with poor environmental conditions” (Oreland, Leppert, Hallman, Lindström, Nilsson, K., Sjöberg, R., …Öhrvik, J., 2006).
praise or increased status within group. Another risk factor that could lead to the development of an addictive behaviour is stress. Stress is positively correlated with increased vulnerability to addiction, this is because many people seek an addiction in order to relieve stress, some more prone than others. Those who become addicted to smoking for example, use the cigarettes as a way to continuously reduce stress (coping method). However stress levels may also increase due to the addiction itself, e.g.
Addiction Addiction is a persisitent, compulsive dependence on a behavior or substance, including mood-altering behaviors or activities, despite ongoing negative consequences. Two Types of addictions: Substance addictions (alcoholism, drug abuse, and smoking) Process addictions (gambling, spending, shopping, eating, and sexual activity) There is a growing recognotion that many addicts, such as polydrug abusers, are addicted to more than one substance or process. Addictive behaviors initially provide a sense of pleasure or stability that is beyond the addict's power to achieve in other ways. Eventually, the addicted person needs to do the behavior in order to feel normal. 23% of college students meet the medical criteria for substance
In order to understand these contributions to anxiety disorders one must be aware of how we define the factors that may contribute to anxiety such as Faulty Cognitions, in which the individual reveals habits that make them susceptible to fear. Individuals who suffer from a social phobia appear to intensify signs of danger and obsessively worry about different situations, so one must be able to relearn their thinking patterns (Huffman, Karen. pg. 502). Another contribution to anxiety disorders includes Maladaptive Learning, in which learning theorists say that they are the result from maladaptive conditioning and social learning.
nor adrenaline and serotonin mainly. These neurotransmitters act like chemical messages in the nervous systems and are known to be active in parts of the brain associated with reward and punishment. They help to regulate the hypothalamus which is involved in sleep appetite , sexuality and physical movement., and these key areas are affected in depressive disorders. Support for this explanation has come from drug therapy. Anti depressants such as MAOI’s which increase the available amount of nor adrenaline in the brain, were found to be effective for elevating the symptoms of depression.
The approach focuses on maladaptive behaviors (addictive behaviors) by changing what it perceives to be the root cause of them (faulty thinking). The goal of the therapist is to encourage the clients to focus on their thoughts and actions. Advocates of this theory contend that only by modifying self-defeating thoughts and behavior patterns will the client truly be able to solve his or her own problems. Thus, the aim of the therapy is to eliminate troubling emotions or behaviors rather than to help patients gain insight into the underlying cause of their problems (Ford-Martin, 1999). Cognitive-behavioral family therapy (CBFT) is the extension model of CBT, however, it also focuses on the members of a family, considering them to be parts of a cohesive unit, and looking at such factors as interfamilial relationships, communication patterns, and other familial dynamics (Frey, 1999).
More evidences shows that legal and illegal drugs are available to individuals, starting with adolescents, creating long-term effects in the lifespan development, affecting the health status of the person and reducing the life expectancy. This strong issue that belongs to nurture represents a component of a high risk environment, which is growing by time, affecting the society. Drug Issue in Life Span Development Research in the area of drug abuse demonstrates that the use of drug is not limited to a segment of population or age group. Evidence shows that the most exposed to drugs are the adolescents. The family is implicated in the initiation, maintenance, and prevention of drug abuse by its members.
Effects on Mental Health. Being a victim of discrimination can have serious effects on an individual's mental health. Studies show that harassment and abuse contribute to the increased risk of mental illness in gay people. Victims are also at higher risk of substance use compared to heterosexual men and women. Often times, victims use drugs to "divert" and "distract" themselves from all the things they see, hear and experience.
It is the basic idea that psychology is a study of external human behavior rather than mental. A cognitive therapist will usually treat emotional disorders such as depression. The therapist will encourage the client to challenge their selves and alter their thought processes to help with their disorder. A behavioral therapist will usually treat disorders such as phobias and obsessions. A client struggling with a phobia will be exposed to what they are afraid of little by little and take gradual steps to help reduce the fear.
Heredity and Hormones Influence on Human Behavior Debates on nature versus nurture are more likely to determine that genetics are the cause for human behavior. More and more researchers pay attention on genes and behavior, therefore, their tendency to follow a line of investigation on the influence of heredity on human behavior increases the belief that genetics is a major issue which influences physical behaviors. However, the only fact of connection between genetics and behavior seems to be too simple to describe the complex process of human behavior. The factor of hormones’ influence on behavior is also identified which debates the reality of it being controlled exclusively by genetics. The endocrine system is very active and is connected to most of the other main systems of the body.