The first treatment in biological therapies is chemotherapy; this is the use of drugs to treat a mental illness. Under chemotherapy there are 3 main types of drugs; Antipsychotic, antidepressants and anxiolytic. Anti psychotic drugs are generally used for more severe mental health problems such as schizophrenia. They work by balancing chemicals in the brain such as dopamine as this is linked with there hallucinations. Antidepressants on the other hand by balancing neurotransmitters such as serotonin and epinephrine witch can cause depression if not sufficiently balanced.
Outline and evaluate one or more biological explanations for schizophrenia The biochemical explanation is one explanation for the cause of schizophrenia in terms of the release of neurotransmitters. This suggests that schizophrenia could be caused by an excess amount of dopamine in the brain. This is due to receptor cells requiring dopamine to fire so with a large amount of dopamine present it is activated too much and too many messages are sent. This is what could account for the confused and the erratic behaviour which is seen in schizophrenic patients. Support for this theory is the effect of amphetamines.
Most mental health experts agree that when depression is severe, medication can be helpful, even life saving. Other studies show that the benefits of depression medication have been exaggerated. When it comes to mild to moderate depression, antidepressants are only slightly more effective than Natural Cures. They altar chemicals in the brain like serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine causing the body to be more prone to side
This option essentially positions Datril as a premium analgesic drug with better efficacy but with less side effects than aspirin. This positions Datril as a direct competitor to the more-established Tylenol. Product differentiation should be achieved by: (1) leveraging on Bristol-Myers’ name and existing brands in the analgesic market; (2) perceived edge in efficacy of Datril over Tylenol being a newer drug; and (3) leveraging on other channels of distribution not exploited by Tylenol. Together with Bristol-Myers aspirin brands, this would form a vertical brand extension with Datril as the upscale brand. 2.
However, increased levels of dopamine stimulated by amphetamines have shown an increase in aggression whereas antipsychotic drugs that reduce dopamine levels have been shown to reduce violent behaviour (Lavine and Buitelaar). Interestingly, a study by Couppis and Kennedy (2008) using mice, found that dopamine acts as a positive reinforcer in the response to an aggressive event. This would
Although the short-acting morphine may be used by itself for short-term pain, such as pain after surgery, long-acting morphine is used for chronic (long-term) pain. How does this drug work? Morphine is an opioid pain reliever. It binds to opioid receptors in the brain and central nervous system (CNS), reducing the perception of pain as well as the emotional response to pain. How is this drug taken or given?
(Catherine Harrison, PhD, January 10, 2008) B. Drugs that remedy or lessen effects Antipsychotic and atypical antipsychotic drugs are used to treat this disorder such as: Risperidone and Clozapine among others. C. How these drugs help These medications cannot “cure” the illness, but they can take away many of the symptoms or make them milder. In some cases, they can shorten the course of an episode of the illness as well. These medications affect neurotransmitters that allow communication between nerve cells.
The most widely known use for medicinal marijuana is for treating the nausea symptoms in cancer chemotherapy patients. Marijuana is also used to treat the appetite loss symptoms in AIDS patients, and also the AIDS wasting syndrome. Glaucoma has also been treated by the use of marijuana because it lessens the pressure on the inner eye, which greatly reduces pain. Marijuana has also been found to be useful as an anti-depressant and works well against mood disorders. Another medicinal use of marijuana is for a non-addictive alternative to painkillers and sleeping pills.
Alcohol/drugs can increase the level of dopamine (this compensates for the lack of dopamine receptors in individuals with A1 variant of the DRD2 gene). Dopamine stimulates the receptors and thud the behaviour is maintained and the individual relapses.
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder in which there is a distortion of reality. There are many different explanations for schizophrenia and therefore a number of different treatments based on these explanations which aim to address these different explanations. Some psychologists believe that schizophrenia is due to abnormal neurochemistry and proposed the dopamine hypothesis. This biological approach suggests that schizophrenia can be treated using drug treatments. Chlorpromazine is a type of phenothiazine which is a neuroleptic.