Identify both the biological and environmental causes of aggression: Aggression | Genetic/Biological Causes | Environmental Causes | * Experiments performed on mice have shown that when aggressive members were mated with other aggressive members the offspring was aggressive and vice versa for the nonaggressive members of this group of mice. * The limbic system affects aggression, damages to the structures of this system can produce defensive aggression. * The hormone testosterone, aggressive behavior decreases or increases dramatically with the level of testosterone in the human bloodstream. * Drugs that alter the central nervous system such as alcohol also have an effect on the level of aggression. More alcohol= increased aggressive behavior.
How does social learning theory explain the development of offending behaviour and how useful is this explanation? It is possible to explain the development of offending behaviour in several ways. The two major approaches including, first, genetic explanations which posit that aggressive or antisocial behaviours are an outcome of markers of a certain genetic makeup, passed down from parents (Braungart-Riekerm et al, 1995). While, the behaviourist approach argues that the development of offending behaviour is a consequence of conditioning or social learning (Patterson, 1982). Although each of these explanations has merit, genetic explanations have been criticised for its failure to clearly show how disparate behaviours can be seen as expressions of a single genotype and that existing evidence suggests there are more complex issues involved than is implied by a person’s genetic makeup (Renken et al, 1989).
A gene called MAOA is associated with aggressive behaviour, it regulated the metabolism of serotonin, and additionally low levels of serotonin are associated with aggressive and impulsive behaviour. A study from a Dutch family with a history of violence including rape and arson found low levels of MAOA in their blood. It showed that the men had a defect in their MAOA. This study shows that the gene MAOA is associated with aggression, this means that some genes can influence the susceptibility to aggressive behaviour, however it is not certain that one gene can determine aggressive behaviour, however it is likely that many genes can contribute to human behaviour rather than one
A man named Burton (2005) found that animals with rabies, a disease that causes destruction of the frontal cortex, had increased levels of aggression. This, as a study done on animals, is difficult to generalize across species, as well as this, it is highly possible that the acute pain, headaches, and fever are the cause of the aggression and not the brain damage. Studies have shown that decreased levels of serotonin in the brain can lead to aggression in humans. One such study was conducted by Bond who
Discuss the role of neural and hormonal mechanisms in human aggression. The relationship between biological mechanisms and aggressive behaviour is a complex one. Some research points to the biological make-up of an individual, such as hormones and neurotransmitters rather than environmental influences. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that enable impulses within the brain to be transmitted from one area of the brain to another. The two main neurotransmitters found to be linked to aggressive behaviour are serotonin and dopamine.
This supports the theory that genetics influence aggressive behaviour, even allowing for the more closely similar environment of identical twins compared with fraternal twins. In 1961, Sandberg first identified the 47 XYY karyotype. Most people have 46 chromosomes, but it is possible for men to have an extra Y chromosome, making them XYY. Court-Brown suggested that those with the XYY makeup should be hospitalised due to the likelihood of aggressive behaviour. He later retracted that statement.
Biological Criminal Behavior (Andrea Yates) Learning Team B Biological Criminal Behavior Adolfo In some situations, biology can cause or be the precursor for criminal behavior. Researchers and criminologists have sought to explain criminal behavior and believe that biology can explain criminality in some cases. According to Schmalleger (2012), some biological conditions that cause crime include: abnormalities of the brain, brain damage, head trauma, genetic predispositions, vitamin deficiencies, excess of hormones, hypoglycemia, fetal alcohol syndrome, a lack of neurotransmitters in the brain, and blood abnormalities. Many criminologists are weary or doubtful of biological explanations as they believe biology alone does not cause criminality and instead it is caused by the interplay among heredity, biology, and social environment (Schmalleger, 2012). In the case of Andrea Yates she was charged with the murder of her five children.
Does violence come inherently with humans when they are born? Is there any gene, hormone or natural stimulus that makes humans to be violent or is violence a learned behaviour? These are questions that have been asked over the years for many case studies and found contradictory answers. While Psychologists from the 20 century such as Sigmund Freud believed that humans were born genetically violent or the Italian Physician Cesare Lombroso who claimed that “Sloping foreheads, jutting chins and long arms were signs of born criminals" (kohn), 21st century Scientists and case studies have concluded that because humans are creatures of learning imitation, people learn to be violent from the environment they find themselves, starting from their childhood experiences, as well as external events and situations that bring hostile ideas to mind such as television, video games, music or wars. The unproven theory stated by Sigmund Freud that human is innate violent has become an excuse for wars, crimes and injustice in the world.
It's primary role is known to be processing and memory of emotional reactions such as anxiety, thought not 100% proven. Experiments with rats have showed that amygdala is indeed associated with fear and anxiety. Though, it is hard to perform the same studies on humans due to ethical reasons, different kinds of studies were performed and showed the same pattern. The only way of being more accurate is conducting more studies and experiments. Anxiety and mood disorders are commonly treated with psychotherapy, drugs and medications.
123The debate over whether prisoners should be allowed the right to vote is a heated issue. The laws vary from country to country, and even from state to state in the United States. The laws governing prisoners' right to vote are often referred to as disenfranchisement laws. Globally, there is a concern about whether these laws single out poor people or specific races of people. Every human has rights but they also come with responsibilities to maintain that right.