Unit 4222-387 Understand the Impact of Acquired Brain Injury 1.1 An acquired brain injury is damage that has been caused to the brain and this can be caused from either by an outside of the brain event or an internal event of the brain. A TBI or ABI, both are a brain injury and the effects are similar but there are key difference in treatment. Acquired brain injury is a sudden change to the brain which was not a birth defect and can happen to an individual at any point of their life. The effects it has on the individual can vary, as well as which part(s) of the brain has been affected can vary. 1.2-1.3 There are 2 types of causes for an acquired brain injury and these will result from either an internal of external event happening.
Lesher says, “Addiction is a brain disease expressed in the form of compulsive behavior.” As with most chronic diseases, addiction should also be treated with multiple recurring treatments since the brain chemistry of addicts often causes them to relapse into drug use. Lesher makes his case that addiction is a brain disease by stating that addicts cannot quit taking drugs on their own because they require medical treatment like most ill patients. The authors final opinion on addiction is that initial drug use is present due to the voluntary behavior of the addict and while it does not absolve the user of their responsibility as it was their fault, once they have developed an addiction, their brain has chemically changed so much that they can not will themselves to quit and must be treated as though they have a medical disease. NO: Alva Noe states that addiction is not a disease of the brain. First, he points that not all addictions are chemical substances and there are many activities that can be addictive to people.
Outline and explain two explanations for offending. Refer to evidence in your answer. (12 marks) The biological theory of offending does not believe one single gene causes criminality, and instead proposes 3 genetically influenced abnormalities that may cause it (Hollin 1992); abnormalities in the CNS because it impairs decision making, abnormalities in the ANS because it means they only react to strong stimuli, and abnormalities in the endocrine system because atypical hormonal activity can be linked to certain offences (i.e. testosterone and sexual/violent crimes). The psychodynamic theory of offending believes criminality is caused by abnormal development of the psyche.
Epilepsy In this report I plan to give a general overview of what epilepsy is. I will try to give examples and types of seizures, treatments, and in general some insight into the whole subject matter. Many people regard epileptic seizures as a disease while, in fact, they are not. A disease rather is more an illness, which tends to imply sickness and being in poor health. Since epilepsy certainly is not that I don t think it has any reference or relativity to the term disease .
(Mental Health America) The biological factor responsible is yet unknown, however scientists believe the illness has a biological cause involving some type of disturbance in the brain. (Mueser, Jeste, V., 2008) This idea is based on the most widely accepted biological theory known as Dopamine Hypothesis. An imbalance in the neurotransmitter dopamine is believed to exist in schizophrenia. Dopamine is known to be an important neurotransmitter that controls thoughts and feelings, both of which are disturbed in schizophrenia. The imbalance of these chemicals affects the way a person’s brain responds to stimuli, which would explain why a person with schizophrenia might be overwhelmed by sensory information (loud music or bright lights), which other people can easily cope with.
One of the earliest accounts in mental illness was found in an animistic/spiritual approach. This was built upon such beliefs that a metaphysical and spiritual world has an effect on one’s observable world. Such procedures were found to take place in 3000 B.C (Shieff, Smith & Wadley, 1997). However, Hippocrates in 460 B.C, was the first to propose a pure biological explanation of one’s various abnormal behaviors. His argument was that there is an imbalance of fluids in a human (blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile) - all in which he named humors and blamed for mental illness.
Describe and evaluate personality and biological factors that underline anomalous experience Biological and personality factors are the two major factors, which underline anomalous experience. Biological factors can include Neuroticism, which is when people tend to experience negative emotional states, like anger, anxiety and depression, rather than positive emotional states. These negative states lead to the belief in the paranormal due to the beliefs acting as a defence in order to create a gap between reality and the paranormal, which in turn reduces the negative emotions, which a person experiences. Schizotypy is the second type, which is associated with personality and is also related to psychosis and disorders such as schizophrenia. Locus of control is a big factor when looking at personality factors and paranormal beliefs.
However the explanation if reductionist as it claims that the disorder is just due to genetics which is clearly not true. 2/3 of schizophrenics do not have a relative also with the illness. This means that the genetic argument cannot prove why they have the disorder and all other areas of biology are ignored. Another explanation of schizophrenia is Biochemistry. This is described by the dopamine hypothesis which states that schizophrenia is due to a high density and a high level of sensitivity of dopamine receptors.
Since then, the construct of phantom limb pain has challenged the assumptions regarding the relationship between body and mind because the pain reported by the amputees was thought to be imagined or hallucinatory. We now know that their pain is real; however, the etiology of phantom limb pain remains, for the most part, unknown and speculated. What is known is that there is an obvious kinesthetic connection between the brain and the body.
Several perspectives have an explanation for the causes of abnormal behavior. These perspectives include medical perspectives, psychodynamic perspectives, behavioral perspectives, cognitive perspectives, and social-cultural perspectives. The medical perspectives focus on the biological and physiological factors. The psychodynamic perspective focuses on the idea that the causes of abnormal behaviors are a consequence of unresolved anxiety and unconscious conflicts. The behavioral perspective indicates that the reasoning for abnormal behavior is because there is inadequate learning and conditioning.