Chemistry PAT Question 1 Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biopolymer with properties very similar to that of polypropylene, though has all the benefits that come with biopolymers. PHB was first introduced to the scientific community by the scientist Maurice Lemoigne in 1926. He noticed that to produce PHB you need particular micro-organisms such as Alcaligenes Eutrophus or Bacilius megaterium undergoing physiological stress in an apparatus such as an agar dish to allow the micro-organisms to multiply. In order to achieve this stress there is a restriction to the amount of nitrogen the micro-organisms can attain thereby altering its nutrition. This is quite an efficient method of production and the amount of the PHB polymer yielded is around 30-80% of the dry weight of the micro-organisms used.
Hereditary Fructose Intolerance Enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of fructose because they speed the process up. These reactions would be a lot slower without them or may not happen at all. They act as a catalyst. Fructose is used as a source of energy for our bodies. Enzymes are needed to breakdown this sugar into energy.
Product cannot be formed any quicker as maximum efficiency as been reached and the only way to increase the rate of reaction any further would be to increase the concentration of enzymes. There are also substances that can slow down the rate of reaction, or prevent the formation of enzyme-substrate complexes altogether. The process is known as inhibition and the substances that are used are known as inhibitors. There are two main categories of inhibitors; there are competitive inhibitors and non-competitive inhibitors. Inhibition is usually reversible, when the inhibitors are removed the enzymes return to full
The study is defined as the chemistry of living things, whether they’re human or not. It is the study of how things work within the body and what happens to chemicals to perform the basic processes of all living bodies on the planet. Biochemistry is also important because it deals with the study of plant and helps to understand the process of photosynthesis and other processes. This means that for understanding the chemistry of living organisms Biochemistry is the most important and interesting area of study. Cohesion is the attraction between molecules in a substance.
pH > 7 is alkalinity environment that will bind hydrogen ion, and pH < 7 is acidic environment that will donate hydrogen ion. On the other hand, increasing hydrogen ion concentration will reduce the bound metal cation concentration. Decreasing hydrogen ion concentration will increase the hydroxyl ion concentration (M. Chaplin, 2004). Enzymes are one of the most efficient catalysts in biochemical reactions. They are used to speed up the reaction rates by providing an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy, which is the minimum energy that requires for reactions occur.
This can be either permanent or temporary depending on the type of inhibitor. A competitive inhibitor will fight the substrate for the active site, but this is temporary. A noncompetitive inhibitor with attach to a different portion of the enzyme changing the active site permanently. The last two characteristics of enzyme catalyst or steps in the reaction cycle is the release of an end product and the enzymes ability to be recycled to start the process all over. (Wolfe, 2000) Sucrose also known as table sugar breaks down to glucose and fructose naturally by the body.
___T____ Enzyme reactions can be slowed or halted using inhibitors. 3. Circle the correct effect. Raising the temperature slightly will [ increase | decrease | not change ] the rate of reaction Boiling temperature will [ increase | decrease | not change ] the rate of reaction. Changing the pH toward the optimal pH will [ increase | decrease | not change ] the rate of reaction.
Supplying enough energy to support the many functions of the body at work and play is one of the chief functions of food. This energy comes from the fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in the food you eat. Without energy stored in our bodies- our bodies would not function. It is required for the molecules to move in and out of the cells, for breaking down large molecules and also foe building new ones. The role of energy in our body consists of the breakdown of large, complex molecules to the simplest form to release energy, this is called catabolism.
It requires a lot of energy to form certain products whose intermediate product is very unstable and hard to achieve. An ENZYME can help a reaction take place by reducing the ACTIVATION ENERGY of the reaction (the energy needed for the reaction to take place). The less energy needed for a reaction to take place, the more likely and more easily it can take place. A reaction that uses an enzyme (not all reactions use an enzyme), is called an Enzyme Catalyzed Reaction! Genes and Alleles * Genotype- is the information contained within two alleles.
4. The size of a cell is limited by the Surface-Area:Volume ratio, since this ratio influence the rate of entry and exit of substances into and out of cells. Cells are limited to small sizes so that their surface areas are large enough to let in essential material fast enough to meet their needs, and to allow waste materials to diffuse out fast enough to avoid the cells being poisoned by their own wastes. 5. Enzymes are a type of protein which speeds up the chemical reactions which occur within an organism by lowering the activation energy required to start the reaction.