When a protein is made in a cell, it is called gene expression, for the gene was shown. As the DNA is unwound and unzipped, transcription is occurring. Transcription is the process of going from DNA to mRNA. RNA is half a strand of DNA that uses the base uracil instead of thymine. mRNA is a type of RNA that is formed by putting complementary bases on the unzipped portion of DNA.
Beginning with this triplet code on the DNA, describe the effect that this change would have on the following: a. The nucleotide sequence on the template strand of the gene. b. The mRNA codon that results after this triplet code is transcribed. c. The anticodon on the tRNA molecule that is complementary to the mRNA codon described above.
The nucleotide sequence on the template strand of the gene. ACA b. The mRNA codon that results after this triplet code is transcribed. UCU c. The anticodon on the tRNA molecule that is complementary to the mRNA codon described above. AGA d. The amino acid that would be carried by the tRNA molecule described above.
“Both deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA and all types of ribonucleic acid or RNA are involved in the process,” (What Is Protein Synthesis, 2013.) Enzymes in the cell’s nucleus begin the process of protein synthesis by unwinding the needed section of DNA, so that RNA can be made. The RNA forms as a copy of one side of the DNA strand, and is sent to other areas of the cell to aid in the bringing together of different amino acids that form proteins. Protein synthesis is so called because proteins are synthesized through mechanical and chemical processes in the cell. Once the strand of RNA has been made in the nucleus, it is called messenger RNA.
Replication Fork In the DNA double helix Topolisomerase relieves the tension. When Helicase breaks down the hydrogen bonds replication begins. Replication can take place in 2 directions because of the replication bubble. The enzyme Primase synthesizes the RNA primers. There has to be primers to start the synthesis at the 3’ end of the new strands.
Gizmo Warm-up The Building DNA Gizmo™ allows you to construct a DNA molecule and go through the process of DNA replication. Examine the components that make up a DNA molecule. 1. What are the two DNA components shown in the Gizmo? The DNA components shown in the Gizmo are phosphate molecules and deoxyribose sugars 2.
DNA replication takes place in every nucleus in several stages. Firstly an enzyme called DNA helicase unwinds the two strands in the helix and the enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds between the bases to make two separated strands. Primers are then added to the strands which indicate to a second enzyme DNA polymerase where to begin copying. The Polymerase enzyme attaches to the strand at the primers and then moves along the strand catalysing the addition of new complementary nucleotides to complete the new strand. The new strand will be exactly the same as the first as the bases haven’t changed order.
Objective Describe the DNA structure and the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology. Background Genes and DNA Genes code for proteins. It is the specific action or function of these proteins that determines cellular shape and cellular function. The processes that take us from the sequence of nucleotides to protein are collectively called the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology. The process begins with a sequence of nucleotides.
******************************************************************************************** Answer Sheet—Module 7 Lab DNA Extraction Click on the following link and view the DNA extraction: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/extraction/ 1. What is the source of the cells used in this demonstration? A human. 2. Give three practical uses of DNA that is extracted: a.
DNA is found in the nucleus of every living cell. It’s made of long coiled molecules called Chromosomes. A gene is a short section of DNA. Each gene codes for a specific protein by specifying the order in which amino acids must be joined together. They are instruction manuals for our bodies.