What are Transcription and Translation?

318 Words2 Pages
BIO101 Assignment 6 • Describe relationship of DNA, genes, and chromosomes: The DNA in any living organism can be defining as the life structure and building blocks for instructional functions for the development of the organism. Genes are a add on to the DNA letting the body know what source to use. Chromosomes are a single large macromolecule of DNA in cells. There are multiple types of chromosomes that carry out different functions through out the cells. • What is transcription? Is the transfer of DNA to RNA(Ribonucleic acid) – which is protein encoding DNA. It eventually leads to the translation of the genetic code. • What is translation? Is the second process of protein biosynthesis. Translation occurs in the cytoplasm where the ribosome are located. Translation proceeds in four phases: activation, initiation, elongation and termination (all describing the growth of the amino acid chain, or polypeptide that is the product of translation). • List three types of RNA: Messenger RNA – Carries information of the DNA to the ribosome site of protein synthesis in the cell. Transfer RNA- is a small RNA chain of about 74-95 nucleotides that transfer a specific amino acid. Ribosomal RNA - is a component of ribosome, the protein synthetic factories in the cell. In the cytoplasm, ribosomal RNA and protein combine to form a nucleoprotein called a ribosome. • How RNA is different from DNA? Unlike DNA, RNA is almost always a single-stranded molecule and has a much shorter chain of nucleotides. RNA contains ribose, rather than the deoxyribose found in DNA • What is mutation? Describe basic effects of mutation. Mutation ca be define as a genetic change that is abnormal from it’s DNA or a adverse condition that alternates the code. The sequence of a gene can be altered in a number of ways. Gene

More about What are Transcription and Translation?

Open Document