Bio-Technology Essay

278 WordsMay 12, 20092 Pages
Bio Technology Bio Technology is the use of living things to make food, drugs and other products. It often uses micro - organisms – tiny bacteria and fungi that can only be seen under a microscope. Fermentation: The brewing, baking and dairy industries have used biotechnology for centuries. In brewing yeast change sugars into alcohol to make beer, cider, wine and other alcoholic drinks. This process is called fermentation. As well as alcohol, yeast fermentation produces the gas carbon dioxide. It is yeasts that make dough rise, so that when baked it makes bread. The alcohol evaporates in the heat of the bread oven. Fermentation by bacteria and fungi helps to produce cheese and yoghurt and butter. The different flavours of cheese and yoghurt are produced by different types of bacteria and fungi Medical uses: Biotechnology is also important in medicine. Many antibiotic drugs are produced naturally by micro organs. An example is penicillin from the fungus penicillin. Genetic engineers alter micro-organisms so that they make many products that are used by doctors. These include insulin, which is used to treat people suffering from diabetes, vaccines, which help protect us from diseases. Biotechnology in industry: Sewage treatment relies heavily on micro-organisms. They break down harmful substances in sewage to help make it safe. Bacteria can be used to extract valuable metals in rock where they are found in very small quantities. They are also used to recover silver from scraped photographic films. New Fuels: Biotechnology has given us new sources of energy, such as the fuels biogas (methane) gasohol (ethanol). These can be used in motor vehicles instead of petrol. Unlike petrol they don’t cause

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