Belarus Essay

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Belarus, officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. 1. State Political Formation The History of State In the final years of the Soviet Union, Belarus’ elite did not pursue liberalization. Although a national independence movement emerged with a strong program of liberalization and separation from Russia, it did not ultimately succeed. This was partially due to the absence of a meaningful Belarusian national identity, and partly to the resolve of some Belarusian decision-makers to continue enjoying the benefits of cooperation with Russia. National independence was not an active process but a result of the failed August putsch of 1991 in the then-Soviet Union. The transformation of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic into the Republic of Belarus did not lead to a fundamental change of the nation’s elite, and institutional reforms were only carried out slowly. An important institutional turning point was the adoption of the Belarusian Constitution in March 1994, which created the office of president. With the help of a populist electoral campaign, Alyaksandar Lukashenka succeeded in winning the presidency in summer 1994. Since that time, the country’s development has been dominated by the president’s autocratic power. Lukashenka has consolidated his authoritarian regime with the help of a constitutional referendum in 1996 and another referendum in October 2004 allowing him to be reelected to more than the two terms in office provided by the constitution. Since the beginning of his tenure he has increasingly controlled and repressed the opposition, the independent media, civic society and the private business sector. As a result of the latest parliamentary election of 2008 there

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