Discuss the interpretation of ancient and modern sources in regards to the outside influences of Claudius and Nero’s reigns. Whilst responsibility for the relative success or failure of their actions must rest with Claudius and Nero, other forces must also be considered as significant factors when conducting any form of analysis. This analysis is further made difficult by the conflicting and subjective nature of sources from the likes of Tacitus and Suetonius. Outside influences from their families, courts, armies and countrymen all seem to have made an impact at some point during their rule. Indeed, it could be argued that the intrigues and machinations of the imperial court were the defining characteristics of the Julio-Claudian period.
With reference to available written sources, discuss the possibility of the Trojan War occurring. Relate to the issues of usefulness and reliability. The likelihood of the Trojan War is an issue often debated and discussed by historians and scholars. Written sources such as Homer's Iliad, Linear B, the Hittite Archive, and accounts written by Thucydides and Herodotus present evidence to historians that suggest that the war did occur. However, these different texts provide historians with a range of accounts that challenges the various evidence in presenting a singular, reliable account of the Trojan War, but they are useful in presenting the idea that war did take place.
Many philosophers have understood this human reality and therefore have set out to define when and how wars can be considered just. Each philosopher’s concept of a just war was influenced by their surrounding environment including their religious and moral beliefs. One of the pioneers of the Just War theory is the esteemed Roman philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero. Marcus Tullius Cicero was born in 106 V.C. in the Roman city of Aprinum.
In his Book, The Battle Of Salamis- “The Naval Encounter That Saved Greece—and Western Civilization”, Barry Strauss illustrates scenes on Ancient Greece that bring the Story to life. Strauss informs the reader on the account leading up to the battle, the events instantly preceding the battle, the battle itself and the repercussion. Strauss’s objective is clear and supported with evidence throughout the text; to persuade the reader on the content of the encounter that saved Greece and the Western Civilization, and to inform the reader why this battle was so significant for the growth of Greece and western civilization. To exemplify this, an excessive amount of Supporting details are suggested. In the text, the reader is left wondering with a very small amount of information on the battle of Salamis and how the conclusion came about.
It is said that Ibn Rushd understood, interpreted and analytically discussed Aristotle's philosophy more than any of his predecessors or contemporaries (Amr and Tbakhi). Ibn Rushd was also known as the “the Commentator” due to his commentaries on Aristotle that circulated throughout Western Europe. Muslim philosophy like that of Ibn Rushd was greatly influenced by Greek philosophy; they created tensions between reason and faith. Ibn Rushd’s philosophies were criticized for suggesting that revelation must be guided by reason. He was well known for his translations of and interpretations on most of Aristotle’s surviving texts, which had been lost to Western Europe due to barbarian invasions.
Athens had an ever changing relationship with its allies during the period of 500- 440 BC from its alliance with the city states including Sparta during the Persian Wars to the formation of the Delian league and the establishment of Athens as an empire. The main source we have for this period is the work of Thucydides and his insights written in his work The Peloponnesian Wars. He describes the build up and the history behind the Peloponnesian Wars and the relations between the Greek city states focusing on Athens and Sparta. Thucydides writings are generally considered as an accurate and unbiased account of the Peloponnesian wars however other sources are needed to fill in the gaps in Thucydides writing. At the beginning of the period of interest, that is, the beginning of the 5th century Athens is one of the most powerful Greek city states attempting to gain support of other States.
As many would state, one of Niccolo Machiavelli’s greatest influences, is his contribution to the modern state. Through both of his most prominent books, Il Principe and the Discourses of Livy, Machiavelli distinguishes a stark contrast between the principality (a monarchy) and the republic (a state in which political power is held by the public), for which he expresses a distinct preference (Skinner: 202, 189-212). This promotion of republicanism and his assertion of how these states must be structured has significantly influenced the modern state. Such things as the traditional renaissance city-states to the US constitution hold particular evidence to support this claim, both promoting concepts which Machiavelli addresses and also promotes. As is asserted in the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, Machiavelli’s views and concepts of the republic are extrapolated in the US constitution, considering that his “republican thought …guided the framers of the American constitution.” Others such as J.G.A Pocock (The Machiavellian Moment, 2007) consider that Machiavelli’s republican thought was present in the establishment and structure of
The techniques he used were based on the Greek Philosopher Aristotle’s categories of persuasion, which were Ethos, Pathos and Logos. All three of them are used in the speech and how effective it is, is controversial. After the attack, lots of people had different kinds of emotions, some felt sad, anger and fear. President Bush knew that would be happened to everyone, therefore he used Pathos as his main tool to guide his citizens to the right solutions. He started off with describing the attack in extremely details and included his perception in this situation.
He also spent many years working in Milan, Rome and at the end of his career, France. Fifteenth century Europe was a time of frequent wars and marked by political and social upheaval, but it was also a time of intellectual and artistic accomplishment that rivaled the golden age of Greece. This period of time is referred to as the Renaissance (Matthews, DeWitt Platt, & Noble, 2011, p. 306). The artists, scholars and writers of the Renaissance were inspired by the ancient Greeks and began to study history, rhetoric and philosophy. New schools sprang up to liberate the mind and the great thinkers of this time began to question what does it mean to be human, “How are we related to God?” and “How do we achieve happiness?” This school of thought became known as Humanism.
To what extent has textual form shaped your understanding of conflicting perspectives? In any text, conflicting perspectives of events, characters and situations create interest and textual complexities. Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar is an example of a text that is built heavily upon conflicting perspectives, using Caesar’s historic assassination as a catalyst for the exploration of the qualities of leadership and strength. Through a number of monologues and speeches, Shakespeare constructs varied perceptions of a number of important characters and events which highlight the complexities of human nature. Through these conflicting perspectives, the textual form of Julius Caesar creates greater interaction with the audience.