Describe and evaluate any two theories in developmental psychology. (moral development.) The social Learning Theory states children’s behaviours can be influenced through ‘Observational learning’. Albert Bandura (1977, cited Gross 1996) believed that children of all ages developed a moral understanding of right and wrong by observing and imitating models that had a social connection to the child for example, parent, sibling or anyone the child may admire. However Jean Piaget (1932) believed that children’s moral development was based on the cognitive processes, and therefore conducted several studies to generate a better understanding of a child’s thought process and how that effected there moral judgment.
Bussey came to this conclusion when he found that children imitate same sex models but do not imitate same sex models that are gender inappropriate. Gender roles are also affected by social influences like parents. Parents sometimes have strong opinions on the divides between genders which results in different reinforcements for different behaviours. For example, a mother may react negatively to their daughter playing with masculine toys but positively to their son playing with the same toys. Parental influence has strengths, for example there is a wealth of scientific evidence supporting it.
Considering the work of key pioneers and current experts with links to child development theory. There are many theories about how children learn and develop. This area of study is called developmental psychology which covers subjects such as cognitive, language and emotional development. The research methods are based heavily on the on going assessments carried out by observing children over a period of time. Assessment is part of the process of understanding what children know, understand and can do so that future teaching steps can be appropriately planned.
The two models of helping I will start with are Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Child Development Theory and Lev Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory. Piaget’s theory focuses on children and I plan to work specialize in children and teenagers with behavioral issues as well as children who have been abused and neglected. I do not agree with Piaget’s thoughts about learning and how it does not play a large part of how each child develops throughout his or her life. I agree with Piaget’s theory that when a child can understand the implications of what is going on around him or her, he or she is mentally balanced. This theory explains that a child’s cognitive development is about a child developing or constructing a mental model of the world (McLeod, 2009).
(Kathleen Stassen Berger, 2011 p. 57). The biological development of a young child’s brain directly assists the cognitive development of the brain and vice versus. According to Lev Vygotsky’s sociocultural idea, all children have the ability to learn despite of all mental disabilities (p.49). The knowledge and capabilities that are acquired depends on what is deemed important by their culture. To further understand a how a crime can be committed by a young child, Albert Bandura’s theory that humans can learn without reinforcement called “modeling” is a good explanation.
2. In what sense, according to conflict theorists, is rape less an act of deviance and more of an act of over conformity to cultural expectations? Do you agree with this analysis? 3. Despite the fact that girls do better than boys at school, boys have higher expectations and higher self esteem than girls, a gap that continues with each year of schooling.
Observation is watching the children. There are many ways in which observations can be conducted, some observations require that the observer does not interact with children, while in others, the observer acts as the participant. In early years settings, observations are a key role in assessing children's development and are linked closely to planning for groups of children. There are some standardised assessment methods which are used by a variety of different professionals. These include auditory assessments, health assessments - these include height, weight, and head measurements and tests carried out by educational psychologists.
Can parts of gender stereotype be biological? Can we link this to how children develop the ability to communicate and how they use it at a young age? There are many researchers discussing whether language acquisition between men and women are indeed different and many believe that its caused by gender bias among our society. The general concept is that we are not born with gender, but that gender is something we perform or learn to do. However, there is evidence to show that even at a young age, boys and girls that learn how to communicate, will learn at different speeds and will struggle with different aspects of learning how to communicate.
In response, boys tend to act out, which can express itself in disruptive or violent behavior. In middle school, academic failure puts many boys at risk and studies show there is a positive correlation between failure in school and disruptive behavior. They are more likely than girls to be suspended from