Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior. Skinner used the term operant to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences". In other words, Skinner's theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we exhibit each and every day. Bandura – Social Learning Theory The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning.
He said we all need conditional positive regard from our parents, and if we did not receive this is can lead to psychological problems in our future. Humanistic psychologists try to understand behaviour from the actor themselves rather than relying on observations. Behaviourists take the phenomenological perspective, this means that they take an objective unbiased view about something, and they go about studies scientifically. The humanistic approach looks at subjective experiences people have and analyse them from their point of view. All humanistic studies are conducted unscientifically.
Children who have ADD and ADHD show behavior disorders that, along with diet and medication, can be regulated by simple discipline strategies to help them from falling behind others. According to an internet article titled “ADD/ADHD Treatment Options” extracted from the document published by Health Responsibility Systems, the behavior interventions are “geared toward helping the children learn, control behavior and increase his or her self-esteem.” These behavior interventions can be done in several ways, but the most effective way is for disciplinary actions to occur when and where the behavior occurs. Some examples of behavior treatments include rewarding good behaviors by a treat of some kind and giving “time outs” for bad behavior. One way teachers can help their students with their low attention spans is by placing them in an area where they can move around freely with little or no distractions, so that they can release some of their energy, establish clear rules, and be rewarded for appropriate behavior. These behavior interventions help the student control their own behavior and increase their self-esteem which plays a huge part in reducing the signs of ADD or ADHD.
Nature versus Nurture of Child development “Genes and family may determine the foundation of the home, but time and place determine its form.”(Kagan, 2010). Every person in this world has their own distinctive personality and behavior. People may wonder why an individual acts the way they do or what makes someone different from each other? These kinds of questions naturally intrigue us. Personality psychologists claimed that one of the most profound challenges is to account for personality development, that’s why they put this into a study whether an individual’s behavior are caused by heredity or the environment, this study is known as the “nature” and “nurture”.
Our environment shapes how our genes affect us though. Genes work in mysterious ways and we may not enjoy what the give to us. Good or bad, genes are what turn on nurture so our environment can shape who we are, how we behave, and possibly who we love. Ridley certainly backs his theories with much evidence and this book strongly displays his opinion of how nature brings about nurture. From the text, I gathered that Ridley wrote The Agile Gene from a biological perspective of psychology.
His theory is that most physical skills cannot be taught but is programmed in our genetics, which means we will learn different physical skills when our body is ready to. In our setting, we support this by encouraging children but not forcing them to develop a physical skill. We provide a soft, cushioned area so that children can develop themselves physically without risk of hurting themselves. The theorist who theory is language development is B.F. Skinner. His theory is that children use cognitive behavior when understanding and giving communication.
Psychologists have many different theories to explain attachment, one being the Learning Theory. Before attachment is learned, the child gains pleasure through being fed.Learning theory sees attachments as developing through conditioning processes. This theory is based on behaviourists theory and suggests that all behaviour is learnt rather than innate. Learning theory explains all behaviours acquired through experience via the process of association. Classical conditioning occurs when a stimulus becomes associated with a response while operant conditioning involves learning behaviour due to its consequences via the use of reinforcement.
They should be put into thearopy or analyzed by a psychologist to see whats going on on their heads to see what causes then to do horrifying things that they are doing to want to hurt other people. They often lesrn from their mistakes by being shown the right way to handle certain situations rather than using violence. Their parents should lead by example because most of the time the children look up to their parents. If the child is not being shown any attention at home, they usually do something drastic so they can get that attention that they want. Kids should not be tried as adults.
Unit 8: P2: Explain different psychological approaches to health and social care practice This assignment will be explaining different psychological approaches to both health and social care practices Behaviorist They are two main types of conditioning this include classical which has to do with repeating and operant conditioning which has to do with positive and negative reinforcement of skinners theory. (More information can be found in unit 8 p1 and unit 6 p1) The behaviorist theory is mostly applied to children because in order for children to learn when they are growing up the parents would need to use the skinners theory of positive and negative reinforcement. For example if a child is doing an activity the teacher might once in a while practice reflective listening by saying ‘well done, you are doing a good job, here is a sweetie for you’ This encourages the child to work harder and wanting to participate more in the activity in order to get the positive reaction from the teacher. In the nursery, if a child for example was running or causing a danger to the other children the teacher would use a firm voice and tell the child ‘stop…that is not how to behave, five minutes from your playtime’ according to the behaviorist this is a positive reinforcement. Behaviourist is a theory of learning what believes that learning is learnt through conditioning.
However, teachers do need to indentify the specific disabilities and these are categorised in terms of general areas of development as follows; physical, cognitive, motor, social, language, behavioural and emotional development. Special needs also apply to gifted children who in many cases are not categorised as (SEN) however; they need adapted teaching to challenge their abilities and to foster their potential development. Therefore, this paper will also look at gifted children throughout the concepts and theories. Piaget's theory of cognitive development in essence deals with the view that all species inherit two basic tendencies; the first is organisation – organising behaviours and thoughts into logical systems. The second is adaptation – adjusting to your environment (Woolfolk, Hughes & Walkup, 2008).