Bad Fish Case

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1. Present the “Doctor’s Notes” portion of the case with a description of the following terms or concepts: • diaphoresis • motordysfunction “Bad Fish: Human Anatomy and Physiology Edition” by James A. Hewlett Page 1  • paresthesias • cyanotic • hypoventilating • bradycardia • gastriclavage • oxygensaturation 2. How many different elements are contained in a molecule of tetrodotoxin? What are the names of these elements? 3. What type of chemical bonds are found in this molecule? Describe the structure of those bonds. 4. As mentioned in the case description, tetrodotoxin is a molecule that blocks voltage-gated sodium ion channels. Describe the structure of a sodium ion. 5. What is a voltage-gated sodium ion channel? What is it made of? What is its function? 6. Why do sodium ions need channels in order to move into and out of cells? 7. Describe the process involved in the movement of ions through these channels. 8. When nerve cells are at rest, there is an unequal amount of positive and negative charges on either side of a nerve cell membrane. This charge difference is called an electrical potential. Describe this “potential” when the neuron is at rest (resting potential). 9. What is happening to the electrical potential of a neuron when it generates an action potential? What is the function of the action potential in neurons? 10. Describe the role of sodium ions and sodium channels in the action potential. 11. What would happen to a neuron if it were exposed to tetrodotoxin? Be specific regarding its effect on the ability of a neuron to communicate. 12. Now that you have addressed some of the basic biology of this case, explain why Dr. Westwood experienced numbness after eating the pufferfish meal. 13. Paralysis is a term used to describe the loss of function of muscle. If tetrodotoxin’s effect is on neurons, why did Dr. Westwood experience

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