3. What type of chemical bonds are found in this molecule? Describe the structure of those bonds. 4. As mentioned in the case description, tetrodotoxin is a molecule that blocks voltage-gated sodium ion channels.
* An electrogenic pump is a transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane * Animal- sodium/potassium * Plants- proton pump Understand how a co-transporter works. Where you likely find one? Understand how large molecules and particles are transported across membranes including the role of Vesicles. What is meant by endocytosis? There are several types – what are they and how do they differ?
The membrane potential is due to the presence of an ionic concentration difference and electrical gradient between both sides of the membrane.movement of charged molecules across the cellular membrane leads to the creation of electrical signals. b. What two characteristics must a membrane possess in order to generate and maintain electrical signals critical to nervous tissue? The two traits required for electrical signal generation and maintenance is the presence of a resting membrane potentials and ionic pumps that maintain ionic concentration and electrical gradients between the two sides of the membrane. Membrane Transport Proteins 4.
3. The role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions that will cause the troponin/ tropomyosin complex to move. This will expose the binding sites on actin so that the cross-bridges of myosin can bind to it. *High calcium concentrations = concentration occurs (bind to troponin – moves tropomyosin out of the way to reveal the hidden receptor site) *Low calcium concentrations = concentration does not occur (troponin goes back – move the tropomyosin back in the way of the myosin = blocks). (Calcium ions) are stored in the Sarcoplasmic reticulum.
1. Does the body adjust its pH by glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption or tubular secretion? Explain how it does so. Body adjust its pH by tubular secretion, because hydrogen ions generated by the dissociation分离 of the carbonic acid碳酸 are secreted by sodium-linked counter transport in exchange for Na+ in the tubular fluid and then into the bloodstream, where they help prevent changes in plasma pH. 酸离子是由于碳酸分离而生成的，碳酸是由于sodium-linked counter 跟钠交换得来的。 2.
In other words, neurotransmitters are the messages that nerve cells send out, and they cross the gaps between each of the cells. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and neuron. Therefore, they influence whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse or not. B) An agonist mimics neurotransmitters functions by binding to receptor sites and stimulating the sending neuron. C) An antagonist does the opposite of agonist.
Which pairs will react from an ionic compound? Chlorine and oxygen Nitrogen and Lithium b. Which pairs will react from a molecular compound? Flour nine and Argon c. Which pairs will not react to form a compound? Aluminium and potassium 7) A certain particle was found to contain sixteen protons and eighteen electrons.
C. I think that the component of the reflex arc that is most likely to be damaged in Nick’s situation is the integrating center because one of more regions within the CNS relay impulses from sensory to motor neurons, so the impulses are never reaching the motor neurons and effectors. D. The division of the autonomic nervous system that would be affected and causing Nick’s GI symptoms would be the parasympathetic division because it controls the interworking of the body. E. The autonomic nervous system controls blood pressure by sensing a rise or fall in the blood pumping in the veins, thus causing them to constrict or dilate as needed. F. The area of that brain that interacts with the autonomic nervous system during physical stress to initiate rapid heart and respiratory rates, elevated blood pressure, and profuse sweating is the prefrontal cortex. G. The autonomic receptors that regulate closing of sphincters and relaxation of organ walls are Adrenergic (Alpha 1) receptors.
The hippocampus on the other side is responsible for the production of corticosteroids (chemicals that produce physiological responses to stimuli). How the mind creates memories is controlled by the hippocampus. So as to work efficiently, the amygdala and the hippocampus rely on each other greatly. The amygdala regulates the responses to stimuli and the hippocampus uses these responses in the formation of both short-term and long-term memories. Damage to the amygdala or hippocampus causes loss of emotions and memory respectively.
| | | C) | Osmotic pressure caused the cell to rupture. | | | D) | The cell was damaged by bacteria. | | | | | | Feedback: Since the cells are in a hypotonic solution, water entered by osmosis until the osmotic pressure ruptured the cell. | | 6 CORRECT | | The semifluid environment inside the plasma membrane is called ____. | | | A) | endoplastic reticulum | | | B) | microtubules | | | C) | cytoplasm | | | D) | mitochondria | | | | | | Feedback: The cell's chemical processes take place in a semifluid material called the cytoplasm.