This would increase the costs of goods sold and lower the net income for the company for that accounting period. The company would have to pay less tax on the lower net income. If the FMCG decided to use the FIFO method, the costs of goods sold would be lower and the net income would be higher. Thus, the company would have to pay more tax at the end of the accounting period. Low income tax payments are why one-third of U.S. companies use LIFO (Harrison, Horgren, & Thomas, 2010).
Secondly high taxes create disincentives to work and this can be analysed through income and substitution effects. The substitute for work is leisure time and when taxes increase the opportunity cost for leisure time decreases, also people will have to work longer hours to earn the same post tax income causing disincentives as it reduces living standards as people must work longer and harder for the same incomes. This will create disincentives to work and so lead to a reduction in the labour force meaning less people in jobs and so less people paying income tax. Also as people earn less this way consumption in the economy falls therefore reducing the governments VAT recipts and corporate tax revenues and businesses make lower profits. This will lead to increases in the fiscal deficits as the government earns less and may be spending more in forms of social protection i.e.
Furthermore, it also mentioned in the theory of Arthur Laffer that any hike in taxes would lead to an increase in revenue in the short term but it would be offset by decreased tax returns in the long term. It also worth mentioning that tax evasion could become a problem with high income tax rates. Examples of tax evasion schemes involve people investing in businesses that make a loss, taking advantage of the tax breaks involved. Overall, income tax rates that create an incentive to work are likely to increase productivity and help an economy grow. Income tax changes affect aggregate demand in various ways.
The nation’s high schools are releasing high percentages of unqualified, undereducated students into our workforce. The majority of students graduating from high school are not even qualified for college, let alone being qualified for the higher paying, stable jobs that grow the economy the fastest. The way to grow an economy is with stable high paying jobs. If there is no one to fill these jobs, we will continue to experience a slow recovery from this great recession. In a recent press release, Collegeboard.org revealed that “only 43 percent of SAT takers in the class of 2012 graduated from high school with the level of academic preparedness associated with a high likelihood of college success” (23).
An economy of scale is the reduction in long-run average and marginal costs arising from an increase in size of an operating unit. It can be external or internal; external will increase the productivity of the industry and will result in a reduction of costs and internal is related to the shift in average production costs for a business as it boosts its overall product output and the average cost per unit falls until maximum efficiency is attained. Albatross could save money if they bought items in bulk but since they make items as orders are received, the items would sit in the warehouse and take up space that would be used quicker. It is very expensive to store raw materials because
A current account deficit means the country imports a greater value of goods and services than it exports. To reduce a current account deficit we need to either increase the value of exports and or reduce imports. Supply side policies aim to increase the productivity of the economy. If the manufacturing sector becomes more productive, the relative cost of British goods will fall and therefore they will become more competitive. This will help increase exports and reduce the current account deficit.
As a result of the increase of cost of goods sold, income before taxes declines and Walgreen’s pays less income tax than if they were to use the first-in, first-out method. Traditionally, companies using LIFO are valued more highly than those who use FIFO during periods of rising prices. Walgreen’s also offers analysts the LIFO Reserve, which is the difference between what the inventory is using LIFO as opposed to if FIFO was used. As of 2007 and 2008, Walgreen’s inventories would have been greater by $1,067 million $969 million respectively using a FIFO accounting method. Walgreen’s primary competitor, CVS, uses a combination of three inventory methods for each of their different business segments.
A 2004 study in the Journal of Human Resources by economists William Wascher, Mark Schweitzer and David Neumark determined that lower-wage union workers typically see a boost in employment and earned income following a mandated wage hike. Never mind the corresponding drop in jobs and earned income for nonunion minimum-wage workers. They may have been priced out of the jobs they need, but that is not the union's concern—its members have landed higher wages and reduced competition for jobs. Such considerations are worth keeping in mind when contemplating the president's wage proposal and the fervent Democratic support for similar and often more ambitious measures, such as Iowa Sen. Tom Harkin's bill to raise the minimum wage to $9.80. Labor unions spent an estimated $174 million on the 2012 election, with 91% of the money going to Democrats, according to the Center for Responsive Politics.
When there is a larger demand for more expensive commodities, the demand for money increases and the cost to borrow follows. This is following the theory of money demand. (Sparknotes, 2013) It is true for a decrease in output. The fewer consumers are willing to buy, the lower the demand of money is creating lower interest rates. This can be seen in the housing market.
Take gasoline for examples as the price goes up people tend to drive less. These laws of supply and demand also affect business decisions; if wages go up employers will hire less people as this increase in average fixed cost would eat into their marginal revenue. Economists estimate that for every 10% increase in wages workforces are cut by 3% (Danzinger 2009) Minimum Wage Merrell