Small molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can diffuse in and out of the cells through the phospholipid bilayer; ions and glucose molecules enter and leave the cell via the channel proteins. Waste products such as nitrogenous compounds are carried to the kidneys and are excreted in the form of urine. Antidiuretic hormone, (ADH), is a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It is carried by the plasma to the kidney and stimulate the occurrence of water reabsorption. When the body is dehydrated, ADH is released, causing the collecting ducts to become more permeable.
Water potential is a measure of the amount of free kinetic energy of water molecules in a solution. Osmosis is described as the movement of water molecules from a higher water potential to a lower water potential across a selectively permeable membrane. The solute potential of a cell or solution lowers the amount of free kinetic energy that the water molecules possess ie. Lowers the water potential. As the concentration of sucrose solution increased the solute potential of the solution also became more negative.
Verenice Herrera Bio 100-Sect. 017 OSMOSIS INTRODUCTION Osmosis is a type of diffusion. Diffusion is the random movement of molecules to an area of lower concentration from an area of higher concentration. In other words, osmosis is the diffusion of water. This is a diffusion where the movement of water from an area of high water concentration is moved to an area of low concentration.
A diuretic provides the means of forced diuresis, which increases the rate of urination. There are many categories of diuretics, but all of them increase the excretion of water from bodies. One of the most important functions of diuretics is that they remove all of the excess water from the body. Caffeine contains Xanthines, which is a diuretic through inhibiting the reabsorption sodium ions, and increasing the glomerulus filtration rate. Water filters from the blood through the kidneys.
When these factors vary, enzymes may change in shape so it will not be able to bond to the specific substance anymore. What is trypsin? Trypsin is produced in the pancreas as typsinogen originally allowing metabolic control. It is used widely in various biotechnological processes because it is very easy to be purified. Method: Material: • Trypsin • Casein • Water bath (to keep the temperature constant) • Colorimeter (to measure the rate of enzyme activity) • Thermometer • Test Tubes (to contain the casein and the buffer solution) • Stop watch (to control and measure the time) • Distilled water (to mix with trypsin to produce the buffer solution) • Test tube rack (to prevent the tubes rolling and smashing) Protocol: • Put 2.5 cm³ of 5% with reconstituted casein in 6 of the test
Osmolarity involves the movement of water across a cell membrane which is osmosis, this movement of water can be hypertonic; a higher concentration of a solute inside the cell which means the cell loses mass, hypotonic; a lower solute concentration inside the cell than outside which means the cell gains mass, or isotonic; a solute concentration the same as the outside of the cell which means there is no net movement of water. In a hypertonic solution in a cell water will leave the cell in order to balance the solute concentration making the cell shrink, in a hypotonic solution however water will enter the cell to balance the concentration. In an isotonic solution water will not move since both sides are equal in concentration. b. Purpose-The purpose of this lab was to determine the osmolarity of plant cells by using potato cores as the cells and sugar as the solute. c. Hypothesis-My hypothesis was that if the amount of solute increases then the then potato core’s weight decreases.
Active transport is the process where dissolved molecules move across the cell membrane from a lower to a higher concentration. The particles involved in active transport move against the concentration gradient, this means there needs be an input of energy from the cell. It may occur that the dissolved molecules are sometimes at a higher concentration inside the cell than outside, but as the organism needs the molecules they must still be absorbed. Active transport is highly selective, proteins are pumps ( carrier proteins) that use energy (ATP) and pick up specific molecules that are then taken through the cell membrane against the concentration gradient (one direction only). It is also know as 'uphill transport.'
When we increase the temperature of the Hydrochloric acid (HCl) the reaction will be quicker, more gas will be formed in a short amount of time. Because increasing the temperature, the particles move faster the ions have more kinetic energy, causing more collisions. Which will increase the reaction. As the temperature decrease the reaction rate will decrease because the particles have less thermal energy, will travel slower, less collision with other particles as a result of this the reaction rate will be lower. Similarly when the Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) is broken down into powder the rate of reaction will increase.
Homeostasis is known as the maintenance of a constant internal environment despite external changes or stimuli in references to exercise. When the muscles in your body contract, the glucose will be used up so in order for the blood glucose levels to be maintained stimuli changes the blood glucose concentrations. Negative feedback increases blood glucose levels by secreting glucagon, the alpha cells in pancreas this stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose, which is then released and absorbed by the cells in the body. Homeostasis is changing to the environment. During exercise our body undergoes a lot of changes.
How fast the body absorbs the sports drink depends on the carbohydrate level and electrolyte level. The higher the carbohydrate rate, the slower the rate of stomach emptying. Sodium and potassium in a drink will reduce urine output and enables the fluid to empty quickly from the stomach, promotes absorption from the intestine and encourages fluid retention. Sports drinks are harmful and corrosive for teeth. Dr. Mercola also says that less than 1% of situations in which people drink sports drinks are a beneficial use for these products.