Ayn Rand Essay

5307 WordsAug 31, 201322 Pages
MIND & BRAIN, THE JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY REVIEW ARTICLE Cotard’s Syndrome Hans Debruyne1,2,3, Michael Portzky1, Kathelijne Peremans1 and Kurt Audenaert1 Affiliathypochondria.6 Later, in 1968, Saavedra proposed a classification into three types: depressive, mixed, and schizophrenic. He drew a distinction between a ‘‘genuine’’ Cotard’s syndrome occurring during depressive states and what he described as a pseudonihilistic or pseudo-Cotard syndrome classified as ‘‘co-anaesthetic schizophrenia.’’7 In 1995, for the first time, a classification was made on evidence basis. In a retrospective factor analysis of 100 cases in literature, Berrios and Luque subdivided Cotard’s syndrome into three types. A first type included a form of psychotic depression, characterized by anxiety, melancholic delusions of guilt, and auditory hallucinations. A second type, described as Cotard’s syndrome type I, was associated with hypochondriac and nihilistic delusions and absence of depressive episodes. The third group was the Cotard’s syndrome type II, with anxiety, depression, auditory hallucinations, delusions of immortality, nihilistic delusions, and suicidal behavior as characteristic features.8 Cotard’s syndrome is currently not classified as a separate disorder in DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. In DSM-IV-TR, nihilistic delusions are categorized as mood congruent delusions within a depressive episode with psychotic features.9 Classifying Cotard’s syndrome as a separate entity is an extremely difficult exercise in our current diagnostic classification system. METHODS For this article, we started from the search results for ‘‘Cotard syndrome,’’ ‘‘Cotard’s syndrome,’’ and ‘‘nihilistic M&B 2011; 2:(1). July 2011 Mind & Brain, the Journal of Psychiatry delusion(s)’’ using PubMed and Web of Science. Relevant articles in English, French, Dutch, and German were gathered. Since data on

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