Certain other forces, like change in the Colorado River course, volcanism, continental drift, and the Earth's orbit. The formation of the Grand Canyon, the area was believed to be occupied by a chain of mountain ranges. These mountains, after a span of millions of years, had become plain due to erosion activities of water, ice, and wind. Meanwhile, due to the sudden climatic changes, the oceans moved over these areas and deposited rock layers. This process was repeated, resulting in the deposition of several rock layers.
The Juan de Fuca Ridge is a tectonic spreading centre with a moderate spreading rate of 6 cm/year. It has a northeast orientation and runs along the coast of Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, stretching a total distance of 500 Km. The Juan de Fuca Plate sub-ducts under the North America Plate with a slab dip ranging from 45o-65o at half the full spreading rate of 63.6 ±3.6 mm/a at S67.2oE ±7.9o relative to the Pacific Plate. To the west of the Juan de Fuca ridge sediment accumulation on the Pacific plate is much less significant compared to sedimentation rates on the Juan de Fuca plate. Sediment accumulation of the Juan de Fuca plate may be up to several kilometers thick at the Cascadia deformation front.
However despite this, as 95% of earthquakes occur on plate boundaries there must be some kind of link between the two and plate tectonic theory can explain this. The theory suggests that the earth’s crust is split into plates which are huge slabs of rock that move due to the convection currents in the mantle. Where two plates meet it causes friction along the plate margin and this creates stresses in the lithosphere and tension in the rock builds overtime. When the strength of the rocks under stress suddenly breaks, they fracture along cracks called faults, sending a series of seismic
Causes When a dense oceanic plate collides with a less dense continental plate the denser oceanic plate subducts under the less dense continental plate. Japan is situated on the Eurasian plate, which is a continental plate, the pacific plate subducts under the Eurasian plate, forming a deep sea trench. The Indian Ocean Tsunami was caused as the Indian continental Plate was subducted by the Burma plate which is considered part of the Eurasian oceanic plate. When the Oceanic plate subducts under the Continental plate friction and pressure build up and the continental plate can snag on the oceanic plate until the tension is finally released sometimes after millions of years. The break in tension causes a jerk and the sea floor to spring upwards.
Generally the Californian society’s capacity to cope is high and thus they are affected differently! On the other hand The Philippines consists of 7000 islands which are all sited on a destructive plate boundary where the dense oceanic plate is being subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. This generates deep focus earthquakes however with violent volcanic eruptions. For example during 1991 when Pinatubo erupted, around 700 people were killed and the damage was approximately
This earthquake occurred on the Denali-Totschunda fault system – one of the longest strike-slip faults in the world. The tectonic setting of this area results from the interaction of the Pacific plate (oceanic) and the North American plate (Continental). This results in the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the N.American plate because the continental plate is thicker and less dense and sudden movements in this subduction results in an earthquake such as the one experienced in Denali in 2002. This earthquake measured 7.9 on the Richter scale and violent shaking of the ground triggered many landslides which buried valleys and glaciers. The one service that was damaged the most was the Northway airport – this was the effect of ‘liquefaction’ caused by the rupture transforming water saturated sediments into a liquid slurry.
The geological energy created by the friction of our planet’s tectonic plates places stress on millions, if not more, every year. Biological energies occur above the crusts of the Earth. The differences between the two energy types root from their location of development and coincidentally the energies, such as biological, that occur above the plates may be directly affected by the tectonic placement and the resulting seismic
Adding to the disaster's massive scale, the huge amount of dust blasted into the upper atmosphere by the Tambora eruption contributed to a bizarre and highly destructive weather event the following year. And 1816 became known as The Year Without a Summer. The disaster on the remote island of Sumbawa in the Indian Ocean has been overshadowed by the eruption of the volcano at Krakatoa decades later, partly because the news of Krakatoa traveled quickly via telegraph. Accounts of the Tambora eruption were much more rare, however some vivid ones do exist. An administrator of the East India Company, Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, who was serving as governor of Java at the time, published a vivid account of the disaster based on written reports he had collected from English traders and military personnel.