Autism Spectrum Disorders Essay

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Leo Kanner’s paper Reported on cases of 11 children from the child psychiatric unit at Johns Hopkins University. He determined that some of the major characteristics were: 1) An inability to relate to others 2) An extreme autistic aloneness that seemingly isolated the child from the outside world 3) A resistance to being picked up or held by the parents 4) Deficits in language 5) Extreme fear reactions to loud noises 6) Obsessive desire for repetition and maintenance of sameness 7) Few spontaneous activities 8) Bizarre and repetitive physical movement > Hans Asperger’s paper Reported on 4 cases of children he observed at summer camp that preferred to play alone. They were similar to Kanner’s cases with two exceptions 1) they had average intelligence and 2) their language was normal. 40 years later Lorna Wing published a paper that referred to Asperger’s paper, naming the syndrome after Asperger. > Definition of Autism Disorders According to the APA (American Psychiatric Association) in order to be diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders you must meet these three criteria: 1) Clinically significant, persistent deficits in social communication and interactions as manifested by the following: a. Marked deficits in non verbal and verbal communication used for social interactions b. Lack of social reciprocity [give and take] c. Failure to develop and maintain peer relationships appropriate to developmental level. > 2) Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities, as manifested by at least TWO of the following: a. Stereo motor or verbal behavior, or unusual sensory behaviors. b. Excessive adherence to routines and ritualized patterns of behavior c. Restricted, fixated interests >

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