Introduction In seeking to answer the question I propose to examine certain aspects of Augustus’ rise to power and the way he obtained and exercised his auctoritas/Ἀξιώματι/influence and became the de facto if not de jure, sole ‘leader’ for Rome. Looking at the auctoritas and potestas/Έξουσίας/powers he had and the way he exercised them was he the first emperor of Rome having destroyed the Republic, did he actually save the Republic? given the state it was in or did he do something else? The argument presented here is that Augustus did not destroy the Republic. His use of his powers and his positions were within the Republican framework of the time – even if, on occasions, at its accepted margins.
Athenian and Roman Democracy Athens and Rome had two very different forms of government. These two forms of governing were efficient in their own ways. But success only came to the Roman Republic because of how they managed to keep control of Rome. Basically, the Romans did not let everyone participate in the government. Instead, the people chose officials to represent them.
The Roman nobility overthrew the last Etruscan king in 509 BC and instituted their own republican constitution, which included two representatives. An assembly dominated by the nobility elected these representatives. The Roman republic also had a Senate that advised the representatives and ratified major decisions, normally in the favor of the nobility that elected them (The Roman Army). Rome had very little protection in the early years of its sovereignty. Its military was more like a militia made up of Roman men who were basically unarmored, poorly armed, and wore only leather helmets for protection.
• It is true that he implemented some revolutionary institutions, but one should not overlook the fact that he also had every one of them only to satisfy his own desire. • If nothing else, Napoleon suspended the status quo for a brief moment of time, giving all Europeans a temporary glimpse at the future direction of European society and the forces that would eventually shape it. • It’s only after his military defeat and banishment that the European aristocratic restoration began in earnest. A restoration which it self relied upon force of arms to squash the spirit of independence which had
Based on reading Julius Caesar I learned that neither Marc Antony nor Julius Caesar would make a good president of the United States. I believe Brutus will. Although Marc Antony and Julius Caesar had great leadership qualities I believe they did not have good morals or enough strength and courage to handle the power. In Julius Caesar, Brutus was known as being noble and always thinking of the good of Rome. If Brutus became president of the United States he would make sure everyone is treated fairly and with honestly.
Despite this treason, he was granted full pardon from Julius Caesar who had always held him in high esteem. It is not clearly understood by history as to why Brutus was granted such preferential treatment by Caesar. It may be inconsequential as Caesar’s fate was most likely sealed regardless of the involvement of Brutus, however, Brutus was on of the key conspirators in the plot to depose Caesar and reinstate the Roman Republic. Marcus Junius Brutus was born around 85 BCE to a Roman family held in the highest regard by the citizens of the Republic. His great ancestor, Lucius Junius Brutus, is credited with founding the Republic in 509 BCE by deposing the last Tarquin king.
Sparta created a very strong military system that allowed them to become the best one around and therefore permitting Sparta to not only manage to defend their land but keep the Messenians under control. The strong Spartan military also achieved the defeat of the Persians and the creation of the best military the world had seen. The Athens entered their Golden Age in 594 B.C. under the rule of Solon. Solon created a government that was based on a democracy, allowing all male citizens to have an opinion and vote on certain issues that were taking place.
He restored confidence in the government, replenished the treasury, and introduced an efficient public works department, and promoted peace and prosperity. Tiberius At the death of Augustus his adopted son Tiberius was chosen to succeed him. The imperium or power that Augustus had received under constitutional regulations and for a limited period was conferred on Tiberius for life. He was fifty six years old at the time of his succession and had been engaged during most of his life in the service of the state, so that he was novice in politics. Augustus insisted that he divorce the wife whom he loved and that he marry Julia, Augustus daughter, a woman of openly profligate life.
However, by the end of 1925, Mussolini had taken many steps to form a stable government, free himself from the constraints imposed by his own followers and successfully consolidate the Fascist regime. Within three weeks of becoming Prime Minister, Mussolini was able to rule by decree for twelve months, effectively meaning he was able to pass laws without consulting parliament. Mussolini demanded that he be able to govern alone in a provocative speech to the Chamber in November 1922, in which he included a threat that the Fascists might choose to close parliament down. The powers given to Mussolini were justified on the grounds that they were necessary to restore law and order. Several leading Liberal politicians were among those who voted to give Mussolini the emergency powers and many others of the political center and right welcomed the opportunity for a new start.
Modern historians however provide a more balanced perspective attributing the loss of the Senates power largely to their subservience rather than the tyrannical nature of the principate. Tiberius attempted to follow the Augustan ideal of a diarchy with the Senate; and was perhaps the most successful within the Julio-Claudian dynasty. PARAGRAPH 1 If Augustus’ principate was to continue to appear legitimate, it was paramount for Tiberius to rule with full co-operation of the Senate. R. Syme maintains that he was genuine when he professed his intention to govern as a true Princeps. Tiberius needed the help of the Senate, he was 55 years of age when he came to power and his rule would involve heavy responsibilities, if not dangers.