Attachment theory, as postulated by John Bowlby, sought to achieve just that. Bowlby's aim was to discover the consequences of difficulties in forming attachments in childhood, and the effects this would have on an infant's later development. Drawing on much work in the psychoanalytic literature, such as that of Freud and Harlow, Bowlby formulated the idea that infants develop a close emotional bond with an attachment figure early in life, and that the success or failure of this earliest of relationships lead the infant to form a mental representation that would have profound effects on their later relationships and their own success as a parent. A concept that Bowlby referred to as an internal working model. (Bowlby, 1969) Fonagy et al.
Infant-Toddler Pedagogies Development and learning of young children have long been seen as critical life-long effecting factors within the human life. Researchers such as Bowlby (1951) proposed in his early arguments commenting on the importance of positive relationship between babies towards their parents and other caregivers, he argued that “without a positive attachment relationship on early years an individual’s capacity to forge satisfactory relationships and achieve good mental health in adulthood would be impaired” (Petrie, S. & Owen, S. 2005). Dr Emmi Pikler’s philosophy was one of the first approach that underlines many theorist proposal and taken it into practice. Throughout this essay we will focus on the key concepts, principals and philosophy of the Pikler Approach and briefly identify significant socio-political contexts that influenced on Dr Emmi Pikler’s life and her founding of the Lóczy Residential Nurseries. Following by arguments based on the possible impacts of these concepts being taken into practices in a New Zealand infant and toddler education and care centre.
Introduction Early childhood play is integral to the development of children’s cognitive, emotional and social skills. It is so important to optimal child development that it has been ‘recognized by the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights as a right of every child.’ (Ginsburg, 2007, p. 182) . From a constructivist perspective, play is an important part of the process of constructing knowledge, as Glover (1999, p. 7) states, ‘play provides a mechanism allowing children to move from what they already know and can master to more advanced knowledge.’ In recent years, the push for a more academic focus in early childhood settings has undermined the emotional and social development value of play in promoting the educational development of children (Ashiabi, 2007, p. 199). Furthermore, there is an extensive amount of literature and studies on child behaviour during play, with many different types of play discussed. This essay will discuss the main types of play and the theories behind them, differentiate between cognitive and imaginary play, and discuss issues that teachers need to be aware of that relate to excessive forms of non-social play in students.
Researchers have shown direct correlation between deterioration in children’s mental, physical and social well-being and separation from parents. Thus, the quality of child care has to be taken care of so that a child has healthy development. The paper tries to unravel whether parental care is better for a child’s later development or even under foster care a child can have a normal and healthy development. KEY WORDS: Attachment, parental care, non-parental care, quality of child care, quantity of child care, family and parental features, cognitive development, language development, social/ behavioral development. For many of us, the very notion of non-parental care especially infant day care conjures up an unpleasant.
Describe and Evaluate One Theory of Attachment and Consider its Significance on Child Rearing Today Bowlby (1951) was influenced by ethological studies that suggested infants were "genetically programmed to form attachments to a single caregiver within a critical time period." The critical time period described is called the "sensitive period," it is a period of time in which something is likely to occur. He suggested that "mother love in infancy is as important for mental health as vitamins and proteins are for physical health." Bowlby focused on the mother as the attachment figure. Bowlby argued that attachment was an "evolved mechanism;" an innate response that ensured the survival of the child.
Since a child is entirely dependent on his or her caregivers, the value of the care that the child receives is an important role to the formation and development of the child’s personality. Occurring in this developmental stage children learn if they can trust or mistrust the people surrounding them in their life. For example when a baby is crying, does the caregiver come to comfort and satisfy the baby’s needs? Whether the caregiver is consistent or inconsistent in satisfying the child’s needs (such as feeding, changing diapers, and comforting) can determine how the the child in the future see’s the world and the people inhabiting it. If done consistently the child will learn to trust the people caring for him or her, creating a bond and as the child matures the people they meet later in life can give him a sense of trust and security.
Skilled observation is important to correctly determine what is behind a child’s classroom behavior. Misinterpretation leads to difficulties for both teacher and child stemming from the teacher thinking that one cause has led to the child’s behavior, while the truth may be quite different (MacDonald, 2006). Children communicate through their bodies. Their physical actions reveal as much about them as the things they say. A major accomplishment during the early years is the development of social skills.
According to Bowlby (1973) a strong emotional bond between the mother figure and the infant called attachment has the biological origin. He hypothesised that for the baby to survive, it has to for an attachment, it needs to have a secure base, from which it can explore the environment and in times of danger or distress, a base it can return to for comfort and security. Bowlby argued that lack of such a secure base leads to infant developing an extreme distress called by developmental psychologists a 'separation anxiety'. The research by Robertson and Robertson (1989) into parent-child separations when either a primary caregiver or a child becomes hospitalized validates Bowlby's reasoning. This idea of attachment as innate adaptation mechanism is also supported by Harlow's (1958) research on primates into maternal deprivation.
Franklin Roosevelt once said, “We may not be able to prepare the future for our children, but we can at least prepare our children for the future.” Adult guidance is the most important factor a child needs during his/her growth. Normally, parents take on the responsibility of nurturing their children and shaping their paths. However, some schools find it necessary to include Child Development classes in their curriculum in order to insure that their students can fall into the right places later in life. Those classes take on many significant subjects such as health, religion, interactions with other, growth, and life-affecting choices. There has been an on-going debate whether or not to include such classes during school hours, yet it is clearly evident that Child Development hours are a necessity.
Running head: HOW PARENTING STYLES AFFECT CHILD DEVELOPMENT 1 How Parenting Styles Affect Child Development Charity Potts-Rawls Fayetteville State University HOW PARENTING STYLES AFFECT CHILD DEVELOPMENT 2 HOW PARENTING STYLES AFFECT CHILD DEVELOPMENT Parents play important roles in child development. When a child is born, interactions with parents or other individuals will more than likely shape their personality and knowledge about the world. Children are predisposition and environmentally exposed to actions and attitudes of parents, which affect their development. Parenting styles are ways in which parents raise and control their temperament, as well as the child’s. The parent’s behaviors, attitudes, and values have an impact in how they interact with their child/children.