First, the formulation of Bowlby's theory will be explained. This will be followed by a presentation of research which enabled the discovery of different forms of attachment. Also factors influencing infant's internal working model such as parental sensitivity and association between early attachment, and later development as well as the concept of transmission of attachment will be discussed. Moreover changes to original theory in light of this research will be examined. According to Bowlby (1973) a strong emotional bond between the mother figure and the infant called attachment has the biological origin.
Who Has More Influence: Parents, Peers, Culture, or a Combination? Children’s growth and development has many influences, and they often combine produce a unique and individualized child. To what extent do these influences come from the parents, the peers, or the cultures in which they reside? In social science, one of the most debated theories of development is that of nature versus nurture. The child’s nature refers to the influence that genes play on development, while nurture refers to the influence of the environment.
Outline and Evaluate Bowlby’s Evolutionary Theory of Attachment. (12mark) Attachment can be described using two theories, one being Bowlby’s attachment theory which is based on an evolutionary perspective. The theory suggests that evolution has produced a behaviour that is essential to the survival to allow the passing on of genes. An infant that keeps close to their mother is more likely to survive. The traits that lead to that attachment will be naturally selected.
The Development of Identity and Self-Concept Middle childhood to adolescent development is an important time for counselors to explore. During this time children begin to develop their identity and their self-concept. In order to determine where the client is developmentally, regardless of age, and explore potential factors associated with maladaptive thoughts of self-worth, counselors must understand the process of identity and self-concept development. Identity As a child transitions from middle childhood to early adolescence, they begin to explore who they are beyond their family. They explore their gender roles, morals, relationships, understandings, and conflicts (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010).
(1) Outline any two theories of child development and discuss how they contribute to your understanding of the developing child. This essay will outline two theories of child development, and focus on how they contribute to understanding the developing child. * The process of emotional development is underpinned by attachment theory (Bowlby ’69 ’73’ ’80 ’88a’88b) Bowlby argued that the propensity to make strong emotional bonds to particular adults is a basic component of human nature and is instinctive * Describe changes within areas of behaviour (e.g. language or socialisation) Describe changes in the relationships between areas of behaviour (e.g. language and socialisation) Explain the course of development according to these descriptions That is, a theory must account for the transitions from one point in development to another and must identify causal variables affecting transition * Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment.
Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into theworld pre-programmed to form attachments with others as this will help them tosurvive. His theory consists of five clear factors that were linked to the developmentof attachment from an infant to its primary care giver; usually the mother. Firstly hestates that attachments are “adaptive” which means the child is at an advantageto survive as it ensures safety and food in order to reproduce. Bowlby states thatchildren are born with innate social releasers such as laughing, crying and attractivefacial features including big cheeks and large eyes which provide them with extracare and comfort. It is important for the infant to form a bond with its caregiverwithin a certain period of time, also known as the critical period.
Behavioural and Evolutionary theories of attachment in Psychology are two opposing ideas about the ways in which a child attaches to it's primary caregiver. In this essay I will demonstrate the differences between the two theories and use case studies to provide evidence for both the Behavioural and Evolutionary theories. The Evolutionary theory supports the Nature side of the argument, which basically suggests that attachment is something which is biologically pre-programmed into a child at birth. This means that an infant will emit something which is known as a 'social releaser' (e.g crying, smiling, laughing) because they know an adult will respond. However, the Behavioural theory is part of the Nurture debate, which suggests that attachment is a set of learned behaviours from the environment and is not something that a child is born with.
”! (Psalms 139:14). One might ask the question: "If theories are so useful, why do we need so many?" Having a multitude of theories allow us to see how children develop from a variety of different vantage points. This paper will illustrate the following (1) how I view the course of child development as continuous (2) how my own personal child development theory would be a blend between Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental theory and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory (3) how I feel environmental and cultural influences play a large role in a child’s development and (4) how I would incorporate my theories into the classroom.
Furthermore, Vygotsky’s socioeconomic model is discussed, with emphasis on the role of language and the cognitive influence of parent-child tutoring interactions and more specifically scaffolding tutoring. Similarities and differences between the two central concepts are also a subject of discussion. Finally, some evidence for the impact of peer-to-peer relationships in toddlers is presented. Based on the existing literature the thesis of this essay is that intra and interpersonal processes are both influential when it comes to forming children’s social and cognitive skills. One of the fundamental theories in the field of social and cognitive development is that of the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1980).
Information Processing Theory Steven Jordan Child Development AED/202 September 25, 2011 Sheila Brock Information Processing Theory The purpose of this paper is to identify, define, and summarize the interrelationship of the components in the Information Processing Theory. We shall explore how a child processes information as well as how this process will change as a child grows older, and how much of a role nature and nurture plays in the development of children. The information processing theory is defined as “Theoretical perspective that focuses on the specific ways in which people mentally think about (“process”) the information they receive” (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004). Although processing theorists do not always agree on the specifics of the mechanisms involved in learning and information, the do tend to agree on several points. It is agreed upon that the components necessary for information processing rely on; input from the environment, a sensory register and the use of long term and short term memory, attention, the different processes involved in the moving of memories from short to long term, the ability for people to have control on how they may process this information .