Atp Biology Chapter 1 Answer Key

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I. Cellular Respiration A. How Cells Acquire ATP 1. Cellular respiration: Includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates to produce ATP. a. Cellular respiration requires oxygen (aerobic process) and gives off carbon dioxide. 2. C6H12O6 + 6O2→6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy 3. Glucose is oxidized and oxygen is reduced. a. oxidation is loss of electrons and reduction is gain of electrons. 4. A hydrogen atom consists of a hydrogen ion plus an electron (H+ + e-). So, when hydrogen atoms are removed from glucose, so are electrons. 5. Glucose is a high-energy molecule, carbon dioxide and water are low energy molecules. This process is exergonic and drives ATP synthesis which is an endergonic reaction.…show more content…
Involves the breakdown of six-carbon glucose to 2 three- carbon sugars, which are then oxidized and rearranged to produce 2 pyruvate molecules. B. Takes place in the cytoplasm, outside the mitochondria and does not utilize oxygen (anaerobic process). C. There is a net gain of 2 ATP (2 ATP were used to get this process started). D. Pyruvate enters the mitochondria only if oxygen is available and cellular respiration follows. E. If oxygen is not available, glycolysis becomes a part of fermentation in the cytoplasm. F. During fermentation, glucose is incompletely metabolized to lactate or carbon dioxide and alcohol, depending on the organism. III. Inside the Mitochondria A. Preparatory (Prep) Reaction 1. Connects Glycolysis to The Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle). 2. Occurs in the matrix of mitochondria. 3. Pyruvate is oxidized to a two-carbon acetyl group attached to coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). 4. The waste product CO2 is produced (2 CO2 total). 5. Reaction occurs twice for each original molecule of glucose. B. The Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) 1. Occurs in the matrix of mitochondria. 2. The Citric Acid Cycle turns twice for each original glucose molecule. 3. There is a net gain of 2 ATP. 4. 4 CO2 are produced per glucose

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