Atp and Cellular Respiration

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Cellular respiration is the process by which cells break down glucose with oxygen to store the energy as adenine triphosphate (ATP). Energy from ATP is used to help the cell perform daily functions like growing, dividing and repairing itself. Glucose can either be created through photosynthesis in plant cells or ingested in animal cells. Oxygen can either be absorbed or inhaled. A consistent supply of both glucose and oxygen are necessary for the cell to survive. The four stages of cellular respiration are glycolysis, the transition stage, the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. Through this process, 38 molecules of ATP are created for every molecule of glucose. In the glycolysis stage glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm of the cell. Two phosphate groups attach to the glucose molecule and the glucose is split into two identical compounds. A hydrogen ion with two electrons is removed from each of these compounds and attached to a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to form NADH. Two more hydrogen atoms are removed and bond with the oxygen to form water. The remaining carbon compound is broken up into two molecules of pyruvate. Two ATP molecules are gained in this stage. The transition stage takes place in the mitochondria. The pyruvate is combined with NAD+ to form NADH and acetyl coenzyme A molecules. In citric acid cycle stage the hydrogen atoms are removed from the acetyl coenzyme A molecules to use the electrons to create ATP. Eventually, all that is left of the acetyl coenzyme A molecules is carbon, which combines with the oxygen to from carbon dioxide that is emitted as a waste product. The acid cycle creates four molecules of ATP. Lastly the electron transport chain, the NADH that has been created in the previous stages of cellular respiration releases the electrons into the electron transport chain. Each successive molecule in the chain

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