Astronomy 10 Chapter 11 1. Both used to be normal stars but the white dwarf ran out of hydrogen, they are both subjected to gravitational theories. A Neutron star is a fluid of neutrons, as hot at its surface as the inside of the sun and has a greater magnetic field. 3. Because its density is so high, neutrons spin in the same way that electrons do so must obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle.
The arrangement of particles in an atom Protons and neutrons make up the main, dense, central nucleus in the centre of the atom. This is surrounded by electrons “orbiting” the main nucleus. The electron are in shells depending on their energy levels, as the most energetic are on the outer shells, because they need more energy to travel around a bigger “orbit” of the nucleus. These shells are full when a certain amount of atoms are in the shell; 2 in the first shell, 8 in the next shell, 8 in the third shell and so on. When the shells are full, the atom is unreactive.
Force Fields Summary Response In Michio Kaku’s article “Force Fields”, he explains how a force field can deflect laser beams. Throughout out his article Kaku shows that future science might be able to provide the same technology as science fiction TV shows such as Star Trek because he believes that science would overcome issues of limited technology. In order for force field function correctly he suggests that there has to have three layers. The outer layer is high temperature plasma created by supercharged plasma window. The middle layer is a group of laser beams.
INTRODUCTION TO NUCLEAR REACTION: The main features of nuclear reactions include radioactive decay, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Radioactive decay: Energy is released in a radioactive decay in the form of the kinetic energy of the particle emitted (α and β), the kinetic energy of the daughter nucleus and the energy of the gamma-ray photon that may accompany the decay. The energy involved may be calculated by finding the mass defect of the reaction. The energy released is the energy equivalent of the mass defect of the reaction. Nuclear fission: Nuclear fission is the process in which a large nucleus breaks into two smaller nuclei that are almost equal in mass.
An optimised imaging modality would result from a combination of these properties. One such emerging technique that achieves this is Cherenkov Luminescence Imaging (CLI). CLI harnesses Cherenkov radiation to image radionuclides using OI instruments2. Cherenkov radiation is a well known phenomenon that arises when charged particles, such as β- or β+ travel through an optically transparent material with a velocity that exceeds the speed of light in the material. As the particle travels through the medium it loses kinetic energy by polarizing the electrons of the given material.
On the other hand, a SN2 reaction is a concerted, bimolecular reaction which has one slow, transition state1. Its dependence on the nucleophile requires that the nucleophile be electron rich so that it is able to attack and displace the leaving group. In addition, the reaction requires primary electrophiles and primary nucleophiles, which allow a backside attack to occur without causing steric hindrance4. The backside attack promotes inversion of the product. Alkyl
How are Neutrons different between Protons? How are they similar? Neutrons are different to protons as Neutrons have no overall charge and Protons have a positive charge. They are similar because protons and neutrons are both situated in the nucleus which is the centre of the atom. Describe the differences between protons and electrons The difference between protons and electrons is that protons are positively charged and that elections are negatively charged.
The methyl in between the amine group and the pyrene portion of the molecule creates a large enough distance so that the NH3+ does not interact with the hydrogen from the pyrene. Thus; allowing 1-pyrenemethylamine to dimerize, and utilize luminescent properties to understand the microenvironment of silica. The process is different from that of pyrene in that, with sufficient concentration in a polar solvent, the dimerization between two ground state 1-pyrenemethylamine molecules occur first. Then, the dimer absorbs a photon at a certain wavelength to excite, forming the excimer. Finally, the excimer emits a photon and reverts back to two ground state 1-pyrenemethylamine molecules.
This saying has been proved by Quantum Physics and the law of conservation of energy with scientific experiments and become a universal law. At that point we accept the law of cause and effect, but why we should believe the necessity of the first cause (an uncaused cause) instead of infinite regress concerning the cause of the universe? According to the principle of sufficient reason by Gottfried Leibniz, there must be a cause for everything that comes into existence; the whole universe is a vast, interlocking chain of things that come into existence, as they come into existence, each of these things must have a cause. If there is no first cause, we can only explain each particular thing in short run by tracking the preceding mover, but nothing is explained in long run, or ultimately. In that case the whole universe is unexplained, which have violated the principle of sufficient reason for everything.
Electromagnetism Everything is made out of atoms. Atoms consist of a nucleus (containing neutrons and protons) and a cloud of electrons surrounding the nucleus. Protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged. If an object has more protons than neutrons, then it is negatively charged. If an object has more electrons than protons, then it is positively charged.