The helots were serfs that consisted of people that were overtaken by Spartans military victories. These people had to give half their profits to the Spartan citizens that owned the lands they lived in. (History.com Spartans) The male and female roles of Sparta were vastly different compared to Athens. Male Spartans lived their lives trying to be the strongest warrior. Being a warrior was an honor and every Spartan man wanted to fight for Sparta.
Their traditional rules, about festivals and sanctuaries, were there to be obeyed without question.” This exemplifies that the Greek gods were of high importance and held the power to determine and undermine the way Spartan society, military and religion was practised in everyday life. Their worship emphasized the attributes most relevant to the city's ideals. The Dioscuri, Castor and Polydeuces, were twin gods who play an important part in Spartan society and worship as they were known and associated as young men and their pursuits of horsemanship, athletics, warfare and protectors of guests
"So it is with the Spartans; fighting singly, they are as good as any, but fighting together they are the best soldiers in the world. They are free - yes - but not entirely free; for they have a master, and that mater is Law, which they fear much more than subjects fear you. Whatever this master commands, they do; and his command never varies, it is never to retreat in battle, however great the odds, but always to stand firm and to conduer or die." quoted by Herodotus. Todays topic is on Spartan Army.
Most people who worked in the factories lived in the factories which had little living space, lack of proper ventilation and lack of proper hygiene (Wikipedia). Due to the poor living conditions and overcrowding people were subject to health issues and death related from communicable diseases. Along with the poor living conditions, hunger and malnutrition were common during this time. Labor laws did not exist. Workers worked long hours without breaks and children were also subjected to these cruel working conditions as they were often put to work alongside their parents.
In this essay, I will explore the conflicts that prevailed between the Athenian aristocracy, citizens who controlled most of society’s land and therefore wealth, and its peasantry, those who owned no land and lacked social mobility; the proliferation of blood feuds between different aristocratic factions; and the impact of Solon’s reform on Athenian society. As a principle source, I will refer to Plutarch’s “The Rise and Fall of Athens: Nine Greek Lives.” Part I In this first part of the essay, I will examine the strife between the two primary classes in Athens during the time of Solon: aristocrats and peasants. As stated above, to be considered an aristocrat one had to be in possession of significant property, primarily land, and animals. There were two types of peasants: one owned some land (albeit this land tended to be unfertile), and the other peasant owned no land and grew crops on land lent to them in exchange for a sixth of their harvest. Peasants who did own their own lands did not have enough resources to keep some seed of their crop and continuously had to borrow seed from the rich, but without any property or material good they had to use their own freedom as collateral nd become debt slaves if they defaulted on their loans.
Historians have suggested it as a response to growing concerns about the outnumbering helot population revolting. The Spartan society consisted basically of Spartiates or citizens, tradesmen and helots (slaves). The Spartiates left their land to be worked by helots and lived their lives as professional warriors. Reports of the Spartan way of life are often biased as very few written sources are left from the Spartans themselves. The long kept system unravelled after defeat at the battle of Leuctra in 371 BC.
However the Spartan men would start their training at the age of seven and they were thought to be tough and self sufficient. The life in Sparta wasn't simple but others envied them for their straight forwardness and fanatical dedication. The law in Sparta that prohibited all foreign trade and foreign travelling kept ideas from coming in and they had surprises when it came to attacks. Spartan women had the freedom of rights except they could not vote. They were not forced to do the things Athenian women did.
The population was estimated to have dropped 50-60%, so the prices of goods rapidly dropped, since there were so few people still alive to buy it. The lower levels of the social chain, like the peasants, serfs, farmers, and factory workers were struck the hardest. (Pollama) Since their living and work conditions were not very sanitary, and their living spaces were often cramped and dirty, they were the easiest targets for the plague. All of the jobs that these people had were now open, and available for people to take. Since the serf population had gotten ridiculously low, plantation owners were forced to start paying workers to tend the farms.
Similar to the Greeks, they were a religiously and artistically nation, but politically sovereign states. As many as twenty such states existed on the Yucatan Peninsula.7 The Mayans were expert and determined warriors, using the bow and arrow, the wooden sword edged with flints, the lance, copper axe, and protective amour of heavy quilted cotton. They understood military tactics and signaling with drum and whistle, and knew how to build barricades and dig trenches. Noble prisoners were usually sacrificed to the gods, while those of ordinary rank became slaves. Their object in war was rather to make prisoners than to kill.8 The Mayans always were engaged in some battle or
| |[Of course, the Athenian democracy also had problems. It took up time from the people who participated in it – and that | |could be any Athenian citizen – with the exception of women and slaves. It was unstable – people could vote in whatever | |direction that suited them – although some institutions, like the Areopagus, were created to ensure more stability. ] | |There were a number of institutions that made up Athenian democracy. These institutions included the Ecclesia or Assembly, | |the Boule or the Council of 500, the Areopagus or council of elders (former