They were expected to spend their time in military training, and live in communal barracks. Meanwhile their farms were run by the woman and the slaves. In Athens, all citizen males were expected to do two years military training from the age of eighteen, and they were expected to be ready to go to war at any time, but they were not entirely devoted to military purposes. Athens was a democracy, male citizens would gather in an assembly where they would elect officials, and vote on various issues. Sparta had two kings, both hereditary, but there were five ephors elected by the citizen assembly who oversaw and had veto power over the kings, so it was an interesting mixture of oligarchy and democracy.
When the young boys grew to be about age six or seven they were sent to a military school where they were taught the different strategies of war. The girls were taught how to please their men with cooking and cleaning of the household. When the boys grew to men they were sent on a conquest with the army and if they fell in battle it was a great honor but if they returned you returned a man. The Government of both societies was a crucial part of their city-states. The Spartan government was a militaristic style government with two kings.
The Spartans and Athenians of Greece had very different structures of government. The Spartans pursued stability and traditional values, whereas the Athenians valued individualism and stressed freedom (71). Government in the birthplace of Democracy known as Athens consisted of a Council of elected officials that would make and carry out administrative decisions. Along with an Assembly, open to citizens, in which they made policy decisions, and passed laws. In the Democracy of Athens only the men were allowed to participate in assemblies of government leaving the women, children and slaves silenced with their political views.
Would You Raise Your Future Family In Sparta? The Spartan family was quite different from other Ancient Greek city-states. If you take the word “Spartan” and defined it would be self-discipline and straightforwardness. This is what Spartan life was all about. Children were raised to be soldiers, loyal to the state, strong and self-disciplined.
Also, the domestic king served as backup in case something happened to the king of the military. Although they ruled the same polis, it was not uncommon for the kings to fight amongst themselves. 3. 28 elder senators and five guarders of the constitution served the senate of Sparta. Often called the “source of security”, the main purpose of Sparta’s senate was to prevent tyranny, this creation of Lycurgus was also held the power equal to two royal houses of Sparta (13-14) 4.
In a Machiavellian society, there was little choice as to what citizens did in their free time. The state was strict but efficient in their laws, in order to maintain order and prevent mutiny. Citizens did not get to choose their skill, but rather they chose what met the needs of the state. Joining the army was the most common need. A Machiavellian state differed from Utopia in its attitude towards war.
The conflict between the Spartans and her allies and Athenian Empire was caused by several factors. Individuals indeed played a key role in the cause of conflict. However, they alone could not initiate conflict. Political ideology acted as a springboard from which they could exploit. Although, trade and financial advantages were often the most prominent, yet hidden cause of conflict in the Greek World.
Mencius answer was that Heaven does not speak but reveals itself by acts and deeds; Heaven sees with the eyes of its people and hears with the ears of its people.(Doc. 6) Heaven selects the emperor; the sole ruler of the empire but he needed people to help aid him rule. Therefore, he appointed governors to each district of the empire and then, in turn, they placed officials at smaller areas. During the Han Dynasty, the government decided to build and expand the bureaucracy. The bureaucrats would have to go through an early form of a civil service exam in order to earn a lawmaking position at stages of government, such as local, regional, and federal.
They had tried the aristocratic rule or the dictatorship rule, but eventually they decided to just have assemblies whenever a big decision needed to be made. They would meet every 10 days. Officers were chosen by a “lot vote” instead of being elected. Rome had government that was a sort of mix between democracy and autocratic rule. They had rulers but they also had people who would gather and have meetings to choose one person to represent the people.
Boys learned the Iliad and songs of war and religion, running, wrestling, and wielding a weapon. They did it with grace and accuracy which was much more important to them. Between the ages of twenty and thirty, Spartan men served as cadets who monitored the country. They kept the helots in order, and disciplined obedience from the enslaved people. The Athenians on the other hand were very different.