Ethical principles are that there are consequences for every action not just for the person committing the action but could be for others. There are several types of Utilitarian ethics but these sums up the basis. This system seems to be more stable than the virtue system but somewhat flexible as compared to the Deontological system. Deontological Ethics are based of strict rules. There is no gray area in this ethical
Deontology is the study of duty. “The theory of deontology states that we are morally obliged to act in accordance with a certain set of principles/rules regardless of the outcome.” On Kant's view, the sole feature that gives an action moral worth is not the outcome that is achieved by the action, but the motive that is behind the action. (Plato). Kant’s ethical theories revolve around personal duty to make one’s actions produce a moral value and respect for other people. In the business and stakeholders context, Kant’s principle of respect for persons asserts that every human being is entitled to be treated not merely as a means to the achievement of the efforts of others, but as a being valuable in his or her own right; that each person is entitled to be respected as an end in himself or herself.
Next on the basis of James Rachel’s argument against ethical egoism will try to answer the question posed. This essay will also discuss the common sense view is the most appropriate way to act in most of the cases. Ethical Egoism is a normative theory, a theory which states how one should behave. It states that promotion of one’s own good is in accordance with morality. In other way we can state that it is always moral to promote self-interest and it is not moral not to promote it.
Explain the differences between absolute and relative morality Absolute morality means any theory in which the rules are absolute: they are unchanging and universal and come in a variety of forms. Relative morality means any theory in which something is judged in relation to something else and is therefore open to change. Absolute laws or rules of morality will never change. More or less meaning they are objective. Objective means that I am not bringing in any personal opinions or bias, so the rules that I work out are rules that anybody else would rationally come up with.
Discuss the utilitarian view of morality Morality referrers to, for those who use it normatively, a code of conduct that applies to all who can understand it and can govern their behaviour by it. In the normal sense, morality should never be overridden, that is, no one should ever violate a moral prohibition or requirement for non moral considerations. A utilitarian believes that 'the right actions are those that produce the greatest total pleasure for everyone effected by their consequences, and wrong actions are those that do not.' The word utilitarian is derived from the Latin word 'utilis' which means useful. It is also referred to as the theory of utility and encourages us to behave in a way in which is useful to society.
“Free will is an illusion. What seems to be freely chosen behaviour is really the result go internal and external forces acting upon the individual” Discuss this view. Quite simply, the idea of free will is that individuals have complete control over their life and their destiny. Believers of free will are of the opinion that human behaviour is the result of choices which each individual makes for themselves; external factors do not influence behaviour in any way. In total opposition to this belief is determinism, the theory that all behaviour is pre-ordained and we cannot chose our destiny so to speak.
He believed in universalizability which means what is right or wrong for one person in a situation is right or wrong for everyone. He feels positively towards human nature and believes that everyone is a good person so can empathise with others. Another important utilitarian was Henry Sidgwick. He felt that moral actions are not judged by their consequences but also how they benefit the welfare of people. This just means that the act is correct as long as it brings happiness to the greatest amount of people.
The conscious decision is good in itself because the decision was not inclined by any desire but the duty to do what is intrinsically good. The volition will always have an intrinsic good, no matter what the inclination is. Kant claims that an inclination for an action cannot be respected as good, because it is not connected to the principle of good will, only the effect of the action. The notion of duty, “the necessity of acting from respect for law” (P.2), plays an important role in Kant’s moral philosophy. The action of duty must exclude the influence of inclination so it may only be influenced by the objectivity of the law and therefore subjectively respected by us as good.
It is ones action that gives the group greater good, not an individual. Deontological Ethics Deontology is the theory that an individual does something because the individual believes it is the right thing to do. They do not look further into the action or bring the possible consequences to mind. They simply believe it is the correct thing to do and act upon it. Deontology is similar to Utilitarianism because it is again based on singular decisions of an individual.
He can then act in any way he wishes to without fear of the consequences that it can bring. He then goes on to explain how the supposedly just man would act upon all his worldly and selfish lusts and wants considering the lack of consequence it will bring. In my