Gender development starts at conception, it is from this point forward that one is treated as male or female (WebMD, 2011) . At conception a female embryo has the XX chromosome while the male embryo has the XY chromosome. Those who suffer with a gender identity crisis may possess either the XX or XY chromosome but in fact identify with as well as exhibit traits of the opposite sex. One's sense of gender and one's anatomical sex are two distinct elements: each developing at different times in different parts of the body (Kaneshiro, 2011) . According to Nevid (2008) in his book, Psychology: Concepts and Applications, the biggest argument related to gender identity is the nature versus nurture, the role played by hereditary and environmental factors as well as their relationship to gender identity.
Describe and evaluate the biological explanation of gender. Refer to empirical evidence in your answer. (10 marks) The assumptions of biological approach are that your sex determines your gender through your genes and chromosomes. For example, if you are a male they believe you would show masculine traits. They believe this because; when a foetus is 6 weeks it has no female or male parts until hormones start to make ovaries or testes form.
An example of this are the distinct sexual organs that children are born with to associate them anatomically with a gender. In addition, geneders are further differentiated when other sexual characteristic begin to display during puberty. Chemical messenger compounds known as hormones are what coordinates the appearance of such physical differences. There is research that suggests that the same sex hormones which create sexual organ differenciation in utero, and also that trigger puberty later in life may also play in important role in determining gender identity. Males normally have more of the male sex hormones called androgens than females.
They shape sexual behavior in society (Flood 2012b). These social norms may vary depending on one’s social status. Social norms are, to a great extent, influenced by forms of social difference like gender, race or ethnicity and class. This essay’s focus will be on how these three social differences have shaped social norms related to sexuality. By applying the cultural lens to sexuality, the social norms regarding sexuality can be identified (Mills 1959).
This is what is said to cause differences in gender identity. Research on animals has helped to give a better understanding on the effect of hormones on the INAH. Young (1966) had injected male hormones into female rats and vice versa during a critical stage in early development. He found that the mating positions for the rats had been reversed and that the male rats had adopted the ‘lordosis’ position, with the female rats attempting to mount the male from behind. It was said that the injections had effected the INAH and as a result different gender behaviour shad been shown.
The biosocial approach explains gender dysphoria as a disorder which is caused by an interaction between biological and psychosocial factors. The biological component of the biosocial theory of gender dysphoria is explained through the brain sex theory. The theory suggests that people experiencing gender dysphoria may have brain areas more typical of the opposite sex which stem from pre-natal hormones. The BSTc is larger and more densely packed with neurons in males than in females and males have around twice as many somatostatin neurons than do women. It is thought that these brain differences cause differences in the behaviour of males and females and could provide insight into the cause of gender dysphoria.
A Cross Cultural Examination of Sexuality: Modern vs Underdeveloped Societies Psychologists have highlighted a number of divisions regarding sexuality across a variety of cultures. The word ‘sex’ has different meanings. Sex refers to the biological and physiological differences between men and women, the most obvious being differences in their reproductive systems. Every culture controls the sexuality of its members to a certain extent, by embedding it in the institutions of family, religion and law. According to Potts & Short (1999) the core social arrangement within the institution of the family is the marital relationship.
Outline and evaluate genetic factors in aggression (8 + 16) It has often been suggested that genes have an influence on human aggression. Most people have 46 chromosomes, but in 1961, Sandberg identified the 47 XYY karyotype, and found that it is possible for a male to have an extra Y sex chromosome, making them XYY. The research of Court-Brown suggested that those with the XYY makeup should be hospitalised due to the increased likelihood of aggressive behaviour. This however was an early assumption that Court-Brown made prior to the examination of patients and although the statement was later retracted, the view that XYY males were more aggressive had already been incorporated into the thinking of many scientists. In later research Theilgaard aimed to investigate the link between the XYY chromosome and aggression by examining the personality traits of a sample of XYY men, comparing them to XY men.
The use of embryonic stem cells in treatments has been a controversial matter for a long time. In many cases that used embryonic stem cells, negative results have occurred. For example, in March 2001, scientists in the United States preformed an experimental study to cure patients who suffer Parkinson’s disease. These scientists transplanted fetal cells into the brains of those patients, which produced disastrous results. Many of these patients were left with uncontrollable jerky movements, which, scientists believed, were caused because of the fetal cells.
Draft #1 Gender Introduction Gender roles refers to the set of social and behavioral norms that are considered to be socially appropriate for individuals of a specific sex in the context of a specific culture, which differ widely between cultures and over time. There are differences of opinion as to whether observed gender differences in behavior and personality characteristics are, at least in part, due to cultural or social factors, and therefore, the product of socialization experiences, or to what extent gender differences are due to biological and physiological differences.  1. ^ "What do we mean by "sex" and "gender"?". World Health Organization.