Talcott Parsons believes that school is a focal socialising agency, acting as a bridge between family and wider society, this is enforced because families and society act on different levels. Within a family a child is giving different jobs based on their age and gender but within schools everything is the same for everyone. Schools and society are very similar that expectations and rules are applied to all and each pupil is judged in the same way. He believes a persons status is achieved not ascribed like within society. Depending on your personal achievement will determine how well you do.
Parsons used the metaphor of education as a ‘bridge’ to work based on meritocratic principles. The education system takes children away from intimate relationships with family and puts them into a social institution where they are expected to follow instructions from an authority figure socializing them into obeying authority. School children also have a strict timetable which they must adhere to, this emphasis on punctuality and organization will prepare them for working life. Davis and Moore said that the education system was there for ‘sifting and sorting’ so that the best jobs go to the hardest working, more intelligent people. They argued that the education is meritocratic and is there to soft sort and select individuals on the basis of ability, motivation, talent and allocates them appropriate roles when they reach adulthood.
Q11. What does Inclusive learning mean? Describe ways of incorporating inclusive learning during sessions. (2.1c) It is very important for us create an environment where inclusive learning can be carried out. “Inclusive learning is about involving all your students, treating them equally and fairly, without directly or indirectly excluding anyone.” Gravells (2012:56) Creating an environment where inclusive learning can be carried out will reflect on the activities or learning that is going to take place and the best way to do this is by creating activities where the learner can work as pairs or in teams.
Outline and explain the Functionalists view of education Functionalism is based on the view that society is a system of independent groups held together by a shared culture or value consensus. This is an agreement in society among its members about what values are important. Each part of society such as the family and education system performs functions that help to maintain society as a whole. Functionalists see the education system as acting in a more positive way to keep society running in the way it should. Many sociologists have studied the role of education and argued that the education helps its members in ways such as language and academic skills.
The first functionalist concept, one will be testing out is the Equality of Opportunity. This means that all students regardless of class, gender and ethnicity are seen as equally important by the school and are all given equal chance to succeed. The functionalist Durkheim says schools stress the importance of equal opportunities. In juxtaposition Marxists would say that this is a form of brainwashing. Working class children are told they have the same chances to succeed as everyone else so when they do badly they have no-one else to blame but themselves.
Why it should be valued Diversity should be valued because nobody is completed the same as everybody else. By respecting and valuing the Diversity this can help growth within that person and also within the workplace as they will learn from each other and will be able to be their selves. Within the workplace we make sure that all the students and staff are treated equally. Everyone will have something to offer to the workplace and have strong/skills that they will be able to contribute to the School. This will make the workplace friendlier and welcome to work in.
For example, children are taught to conform by the family and education, which allows them to conform to the rules of wider society and become aware of what, is socially acceptable. Education also trains by teaching the skills needed for later life, for example punctuality, and interview skills. Unlike conflict structuralism, functionalists believe that society is based on merit, and those who work the hardest will be the ones to make it to the top, ensuring jobs are filled by those most capable, with the required skills. Those who don’t work, will stay at the bottom of the hierarchy, and carry out the more menial, but equally essential jobs. However not all functionalists see society exactly the same, as they have similar but different views towards it also functionalists are also externally criticised of their views of society as a functional unit.
He notes that “to prepare him for the future life means to give him command of himself; it means so to train him that he will have the full and ready use of his capabilities” (Dewey, 1897, p6). In addition to his ideas regarding what education is and what effect it should have on society, Dewey also had specific notions regarding how education should take place within the classroom. Dewey argued that the major flaw in education was is the inactivity of the student. He argues that in order for education to be most effective, content must be presented in a way that allows the student to relate the information to prior experiences, thus deepening the connection with this new knowledge (Dewey, 1902). Dewey advocated for an educational structure that strikes a balance between delivering
Now people’s ideologies are influenced by the education system, which is now the main agency of control within society. People are now entitled to more choices and their acceptance comes from their experience of education. Althusser states people used to accept their position in society because they believed it to be ‘gods will’. This theory suggests that if individuals are going to accept inequality their ideologies need to be controlled and the only way to accomplish this is to become a teacher and to control the society through power. Education according to Althusser reproduces inequality by preparing pupils for work in the wider society.
Do we have the available tools needed to face difficulties? The process of making up of personality begins unconsciously almost at birth, and is continually shaping the individual's powers, forming his habits, training his ideas, and arousing his feelings and emotions. Education should also contribute to this process in order to prepare the child to his future life in the society. The only true education comes through the stimulation of the child's powers by the demands of the social situations in which he finds himself. Through these demands he is stimulated to act as a member of a unity.