They are both structuralist theories, the individual is viewed with less importance than the social structure or organisation of society. Functionalists see society as being made up of interdependent sections, which will work together to fulfil the functions necessary for the survival of society as a whole. They see shared norms and values as being fundamental to society. Functionalists believe that society can be compared to a living organism, in a way that all interdependent parts (organs) must function together in order for the greater society/body to function. Functionalists see society as a group of institutions.
The functionalist believe that the understanding of deviance is the function for society rather than individuals themselves. Even though they believe that consensus is a function required for society. Functionalists therefore, argue that it is important for society to maintain society and the social control. However, the strain theory which is Merton's theory is based upon the theory of functionalist as they encourage anomie of deviance. Merton 1930,highlights the strains between the cultural goals of society and legitimate and regular ways to achieving the goals of success.
Instead of studying social economics as a whole, other social sciences may study about the distribution of economic goods and how it affects an individual. In other words, a sociologist emphasizes social behavior, but a psychologist will focus more on individual behavior. Karl Marx believed that economics was the underlying key to understanding human society. His idea was that social conflict leads to change in society. Conflict resulted from the struggles of different social classes over the means of production.
The functionalist perspective presents social moulding of an individual rather than use of force to the individual in order to carry out societal roles. Moreover, it asserts that when members of the society cooperate with one another, they help in maintaining order in the society. In addition to that, functionalists perceive social transformation as being constructive and expected. The functionalist view also holds that each feature of society is mutually dependent and participates in society's performance as a whole. It was emphasised by Appelrouth and Edles (2008:349) that, the classic structural functionalist image of society is as an organism, such as the body with different parts (e.g.
Functionalism and Marxism are both different sociological perspectives that state theories about society, these theories attempt to explain how society influences people and how people influence society. These two ideologies however are very different. Functionalists see society as based on value consensus, this means agreements. They believe society is held together by a shared culture. Sharing the same culture integrates individuals into society by giving them a sense of solidarity with others.
TMA04 – Introduction to Social Science Question: Compare and contrast two social science views about the ordering of social life Understanding social order is central to social sciences as it largely determines human behaviour and allows individuals live together, sharing a common space. As a concept, social order can be interpreted as a social condition in which stability and consistency are maintained through a set of rules of conduct, often implicit, inducing people exercise self-control within life situations. It differs over time and place, and tends to be restored immediately when it is breached I looked at the main differences and similarities between the two theorists Michel Foucault and Erwing Goffman? If we now compare and contrast Goffman’s and Foucault’s explanations of how social order is made and remade. I looked at Goffman’s theory, he believes social order is produced through actions of individuals and their practises through living there lives.
d. Overall, the assumption of functionalism is that all social structures contribute to the maintenance of the system and the existence of any given structure is explained by means of its consequences (functions) which must, by definition be beneficial to the maintenance of stable order. 2. Functionalism on stratification: the Davis-Moore thesis: a. With particular respect to the issue of social stratification or social inequality, the functionalist view argues that social inequality is necessary because it fulfills vital system needs. b.
Then, we will move to their usefulness in the maintenance of a society. We will conclude with a discussion on the effectiveness and enforcements of these rules involved in the society. Firstly, to understand the roles played by norms and laws in the formation of a society we must first understand why a society would form. An individual will give up some of his liberties to form a society, if said society offers him an aid in survival. The individual’s motivations of survival will be complimented by the condition that the individual survives in.
Assess the Usefulness of Micro Sociology to Our Understanding of Society Assess the usefulness of micro sociology to our understanding of society (33marks) Micro sociology focuses on the actions and interactions of individuals and is a bottom-up approach. Such micro approaches, see society as shaped by its members, who possess agency, in other words, the ability to act as free agents. Micro approaches, also known as action theories, include social action theory, symbolic interactionism, phenomenology and ethnomethodoly. However, macro sociologists take a deterministic approach, as they believe that our actions are determined by society. Macro theories include Functionalism and Marxism, who see individuals as puppets, under the control of social structures.
E.g. jobs, house, car. Merton believes that you have to accept the institutionalised means which is of legal ways of achieving that accepted success. Merton's theory is the strain theory. He believes that while some people are able to follow this patch to success, others are blocked because of their position in the social structure.