The First Crusade and the Propagation of Religion The First Crusade was a military attempt by Roman Catholic Europe to regain control over the Holy Lands of Jerusalem, in which the Muslims had taken control of in 661. During this crusade, knights and peasants from many areas of Western Europe went on this pilgrimage, first stopping at Constantinople and then continuing on to Jerusalem. In the group of crusaders, the peasants greatly out numbered the military knights. Many crusaders did not make it the long journey, and the lasting crusaders were mostly the knights, as they were better trained and prepared for such combat. Once the Knights reached Jerusalem, they took control by ransacking every building and torturing and killing almost all of the 60,000 unarmed civilians living in Jerusalem.
To What extent did Luther’s challenge to the Catholic Church change in the years 1517-1521? During the period of 1517-1521, Luther’s challenge and also his views towards the Catholic Church went through a series of changes. In chronological these are the main reasons why I think his evolution in ideas occurred: Luther being threatened by Cardinal Cajetan; Luther being questioned by Eck in Leipzig; His publishing of his 3 books in 1520 and his attendance at the Diet of Worms in 1921. On the 31st October 1517 Luther’s publishing of the The 95 theses was the backdrop to his challenge to the church and is what got everybody’s attention, in mainly focused in on the selling of indulgences was wrong (would not guarantee your entry to heaven and also morally wrong) and that sole fide (faith alone) would get a soul into heaven. Despite this was the first time his views had been published, there was no distinct change to his views it was only the fact that Johann Tetzel’s selling of indulgences in Germany had contributed to him publishing the 95 theses.
Pilgrims were religious people who travel to make sacred, to holy places in Jerusalem. In 1065, the Turks captured the city of Jerusalem. About three thousand Christians were killed and others were mistreated which led to the crusade for the resurrection of the holy crusade. The deaths and treatment of these Christians motivated the storm throughout in Europe, resulting in the desire to save the holy land and Jerusalem from the “infidel.” Religious, Christian wants to visit the holy land for the remembrance of the sacrifice our Lord, Jesus Christ made as the Lamb of God. Not only people with religious conviction had the courage to resurrect
At this point Julian refocused his attention and took aim at bringing down Augustine. The ensuing ecclesiastical battle between the two would last for ten years and encompass a myriad of treatise, letters and books. In 428 Julian again attempted restoration with the Bishopric in Rome through the inquiries of the Patriarch of Constantinople, Nestorius. This was to no avail, and came with an imperial decree expelling them from the city. Julian continues his battle with Augustine and fought for the Pelagian cause till the end, which came in 431 at the Council of Ephesus.
In the mid-12th century, the Turkic ruler Saladin rose to lead the Seljuks and succeeded in uniting the fragmented Muslim armies of Southwest Asia and North Africa. To Saladin, the Christian armies were the infidels that had to be evicted. When Saladin’s forces took Jerusalem, the call went out across Europe to launch another crusade. Three kings came forward-Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, King Phillip II of France, and King Richard I, later known as Richard the Lionheart of England. Held in 1187-1192.
The Muslims believed that this is where the ascension of the prophet Mohammad who was the prophet for Allah. The Holy Land is significant to Christians because this is where the Biblical prophets of the Old Testament prophesied of Christ coming, but most importantly this is where Christ did all of His earthly ministry. The final straw which brought about the start of the Crusades was when Jerusalem was overtaken by Muslim Turks who slaughtered 3000 Christians. This event lead down to a path which would be known as the starting block for the
Pope Urban, in 1095, gave a speech which called people to crusade. There, he made an appeal on Alexius Comnenus, the Byzantine Emperor’s behalf for knights to go to the aid of Jerusalem and Christians in the east. People responded enthusiastically; it led to thousands of people, knights and peasants alike, to march on an ‘armed pilgrimage’ towards Jerusalem. Accounts show that Pope Urban spoke that responding to the call to crusade would be effective as a penance for sin; that they needed to help the Greeks who had asked for assistance and to uphold the peace of God. There may also have been the idea of taking revenge on those (the Muslims) who had desecrated Christ’s Holy City, and his people, the Christians.
Then he moved to Orleans, France, to study law. In 1531 Calvin returned to Paris with his law degree. At this time Protestant opposition to the church was growing. The ideas of Martin Luther concerning the saving of one's soul by faith alone were becoming popular in the city, and Calvin became involved in the movement for church reform. In January 1534 he fled Paris during a crackdown on Protestants and went to Angouleme, France, where he began writing down a full description of his beliefs.
Charlemagne responsibilities grew after the battle against the Saxons, which lasted a long period of time (33 years) with each conquest the Frankish empire grew, the growth became the additional power and responsibility for Charlemagne. His responsibility as a Carolingian monarch was to eliminate the leaders in the church that weren’t Christians or who refused to convert themselves or be baptized as a Christian or the conquense was death. The church played a Major role in the kingdom of Charlemagne. It gave him a sense of stability, he in turn provided stability in the church. The people conquered by charlemegne , after being converted to christianty, were taught through the bible of codes that taught right and wrong.
What set the First Crusade in motion was when the Emperor of Byzantine, Alexius I, asked Pope Urban II for military aid against the Muslim Turks. The Muslim Turks occupied most of Spain, Palestine, North Africa, Syria, and Jerusalem at the time and was close to Constantinople.  The Muslim territorial gains threatened the Christendom and sparked a serious rivalry between the two religions, especially in terms of dominance. This rivalry helped fuel the Christian retaliation and campaign against the Muslims as it threatened the Churches power. Pope Urban II sought out to strengthen the church via reform.