The Impact of the Crusades on History The Crusades, also know as the “Holy Wars”, were fought in the name of Christ and Christianity. Muslims controlled Jerusalem after the fall of the Roman Empire and they allowed religious freedoms to the Christians and Jews that also resided here. In the early 11th century, however, the Seljuk Turks (also Muslim) took rule of Jerusalem and the surrounding Palestine region. The Turks endorsed Islam and ended religious freedoms for both Jews and Christians. The Turks attempted to expand their reign and began to invade the Byzantine Empire.
The Hundred Years’ War was going strong during the Western Schism, and was a major reason why the countries of France and England supported different popes. To most countries, if you supported France, you supported the pope at Avignon; if not, you supported the pope at Rome. These political differences also led to the Ferdinand Wars, in which Portugal (supported by England) fought the kingdom of Castile (supported by France). In reality, almost all political conflict in this time period settled around England and France, and this greatly influenced other countries decisions on which pope to recognize. The Western Schism had a tremendous impact on European society as well.
He also appealed to Urban to go to the aid of the Christians that were being harassed by Muslims, he stressed to Pope Urban that many cities were under the control of the infidel (Muslims), especially Jerusalem. Urban called the Council of Clermont to discuss the matter further, once they were all together the Council lasted 10 days from the 18th of November to the 28th. Many things were discussed such as reforms of the church and the extended excommunication of Philip I of France for his adulterous marriage to Bertrade of Montford. On November 27th the Pope spoke of the problems in the East, he declared “bellum sacrum” against the Muslims that occupied the Holy land; it had now become a holy war. There are accounts of a speech made by Pope Urban II however, these were all written after the success of the first crusade so it is not, necessarily, reliable.
Critically discuss and analyze some of the reasons for the enthusiastic response to Pope Urban II's call for Crusade ( AD 1095 ) Critically discuss and analyze some of the reasons for the enthusiastic response to Pope Urban II's call for Crusade ( AD 1095 ) On the 27th of November 1095, Pope Urban II proclaimed the First Crusade to a large but mainly clerical gathering at Clermont in France. Urban had returned to his native France primarily to oversee the reform of the Church, but had also come with the intention with preaching the crusade . Urban's speech was in response to an appeal for assistance from Alexios I, the Byzantine Emperor, against the Turks. Having painted the sombre picture of the plight of the Byzantine's he made his great appeal. “ Let western Christendom march to the rescue of the East.
This use of language reflects the deeply held religious convictions that he held and used as inspiration for many of his decisions. Alexander II used his religious convictions to justify the emancipation of the serfs. When Alexander II signed the edict emancipating the surfs on 18 February, 1861, it was in response to the changes going on in Russian society during the mid-1800’s. Peasant unrest was on the rise throughout Russia due to the extreme disparity between landholders and serfs. “The matter of the liberation of the serfs...I consider to be a vital question for Russia, upon which will depend the development of her strength and power.” (Kaiser and Maker) The notion of emancipating the serfs was not unique to Alexander II.
Religion was part of the society and life. The high members of the church had more power than normal religious leaders. For example, because people feared hell and that church was getting its power from God, people were afraid to break the laws of the church. The church started collecting taxes and accepting indulgence from the people to forgive their sins. One of the key conflicts in the medieval world was between the Christian West and the Muslim East.
Pope Urban II Speech November 27th 1095 became an important day in history when Pope Urban II gave a speech to fellow Christians which ultimately sparked the first crusade. The purpose of this address to the public was originated from Alexios I Komnenos, the Byzantine emperor who sent the Pope to get them aid as they were being attacked by the Seljuk Turks and take back Jerusalem from Muslims. Reading the four accounts by: Fulcher of Chartres, Robert the Monk, Balderic of Dol and Guibert of Nogent, one could see that the main similarity in all versions was the reference to religion and how to serve God, “Freshly quickened by the divine correction, you must apply the strength of your righteousness to another matter which concerns you as well as God.”(Fulcher Of Chartres) Pope Urban II calls for help by referring to God and religion to persuade the public to go on this crusade so all their sins are washed away. Versions of the speech show differences, each showing the mentality of what kind of crowd this address was given to. The account by Fulcher of Chartres shows more of a religious approach where the Pope opens his speech by saying what should be the characteristics of a person to be close to God and not face his wrath, “I hoped to find you as faithful and as zealous in the service of God as I had supposed you to be.” At this point of the speech the audience does not know the purpose of this talk.
Document nine shows the power and influence of the church on the people. The Pope and the Catholic Church made a call for the men to join the crusade to capture the Holy Land, Jerusalem. They said that it was God’s will to go and fight, and if you did all your sins would be removed. This again shows that people would do anything to have their sins removed to go to heaven. In the illustration in document 10 the church is bigger than anything else in the picture.
Introduction For Augustine, the Roman church was the seat of Peter to whom the Lord after his resurrection entrusted the feeding of his sheep and the church in which the primacy of apostolic chair developed and remained successful. The fall of the Western Roman Empire and its invasion by the barbarians created a number of independent kingdoms each of which was of great significance for the latter history of the church in its territory. It also gave new functions and power to two institutions that had began to develop earlier the monastic and the papacy. More invasions posed new challenges to the church and were very disastrous. This condition raised diverse reasons for papal power from different popes who contributed differently to its growth.
Augustine writes Confessions to influence non-Christians to convert because of his strong belief in Christianity. Augustine converts to Christianity for many reasons such as crucial disagreements with Manichaeism, for example astrological beliefs and the description of God. In his travels to Carthage, Augustine encounters a man named Faustus, who was a bishop in the Manichean Church. Augustine recounts that Faustus spoke to him with loquacity and that Faustus was trying to convince Augustine about Manichean myths with the use of flashy language. Augustine says that “He was a great snare of the devil and many were