Instead, females were a treaty maker between countries by marrying them off meaning England would not be invaded by that country. Since the Roman-Catholic Church would not allow divorces, Henry created a new church that he could divorce in. According to the church, Henry’s marriage was illegal. This is because he had married the widow of his brother, Arthur. Because Catherine was the wife of his brother, and only gave Henry a daughter, this meant she was illegitimate.
As a result Edward decided to remove the Archbishop of York who had approved the marriage. This results in Warwick changing his alliance to Henry VI. Furthermore Edward IV had believed it was best to marry Elizabeth Woodville, for love rather than political reasons. This many nobles had seen as a mistake because their marriage did not create any alliances for England. Their marriage had also managed to alienate many of the nobles.
Wolsey was raised as a Catholic and supported the concept of marriage however, the main reason he was able to stay in power for so long was his flexibility to meet the kings wishes whatever they were. A divorce was very hard to obtain even for the king of England as it went against the religious nature of the country and so Wolsey knew he would have to find a loophole or old scripture that allowed Henry to be divorced from Catherine if he wanted to please Henry and stay in power. Wolsey tried to say that Edward had not consummated his marriage to Catherine of Aragon and so it was not valid, however this is most likely untrue and so this did not work. The Sack of Rome was used to put pressure on the Pope to grant the divorce as it kept the Pope as a virtual prisoner inside of Italy however this also failed. Wolsey’s final attempt to secure the divorce was through Henry’s own court however, this was not recognised by Catherine and she went to the Pope who refused to grant the divorce.
Why did the barons rebel against king john? In this essay I will explain as to why I think the barons rebelled against king john in 1216: In order to be a good king you have to be good at your job you can’t be weak, king john lost most of his empire due to being weak he was a weak fighter and a weak king and if for example England were under attack then they would lose and if the king loses that make that barons lose and that didn’t show to England or the barons that king john was a good enough king .In order to be a good king you have to be trustworthy and King John didn’t prove to be trustworthy because everyone believed that he killed his nephew Arthur and if his as so audacious enough to kill his own family then wouldn’t he be as so brave to kill anyone. Even though, king john wasn’t the best of kings but not everything he did was bad he did win the battles against wales and Scotland and he improved the ships and made them stronger not only that he made sure that the trails in court were fairer and that made England richer. He did help the poor he fed 1000 paupers each year but some people believe that he could have done more to help. He was also a good king because he looked good and he kept law and order yet in the rest of his jobs he was quite a bad king for example when he did help the church etc.
In 1625 Buckingham decided England needed a new ally in Europe in France after the failure of the Spanish match, they could see diplomatic advantages, France was becoming worried about the successes of the Hapsburg Spanish and might be persuaded to take part against them. This however made Puritan minded MPs suspicious of Charles as not only was Henrietta Maria, the King’s prospective wife, Catholic, but also the terms of marriage included toleration for Catholics – something Parliament would certainly not welcome, rather it resented the Crown’s decision to do this. The Alliance with France however, had broken down by 1627 leading England into war. Buckingham was to blame because it was his flawed policy of creating an alliance with the French under terms not possible to keep such as toleration for Catholics, which caused the French Chief Minister to decide not to join the English in a war against the Hapsburgs, because of which Buckingham reversed his policy of French alliance. Furthermore to gain popularity Buckingham decided to help the Huguenots who were held at the port of La Rochelle – again this was another flawed move as now England was at war with two countries.
The papacy therefore had a strong vested interest in the failure of the conciliarist movement and therefore avoided convening a general council. Even when Julius II had convened a general council, Lateran V it was disbanded in 1517 as conciliarist feelings ran high. The papacy was arguably the biggest block to reform because in order for reform to successfully take place it had to come from the top of the hierarchy. Even when Paul III had decided to convene a general council there was still opposition to reform because there was no agreement on which way reform would take place, would the Church compromise with the Protestants or not. Paul III and Charles V had vastly different expectations of the council; Charles V hoped that the general council would end the schism by removing abuses which both protestant and Catholics had complained about for so long – Charles was convinced that the removal of these abuses would stem the tide of defection from the Church.
This was a disaster and Buckingham had to retreat his troops without even aiding the Huguenots, which made him become the most despised man in England as he was seen responsible for the military failures. One MP, Sir Edwyn Sandys, said that ‘since England was England it received not so an honourable blow’. This therefore decreased the reputation of the Crown because Charles was the one who appointed Buckingham as ‘Lord Admiral’ in the first place and caused tensions between them and Parliament. It also caused discontent as it meant that Britain was at war with Spain and France too. More importantly, though, this caused great strain on the country and Charles couldn’t find the necessary funding to finance the wars, which lead to him implementing the Forced Loan on December 1627.
Henry took the pope and held him as prisoner; the pope (whilst being imprisoned) did not negotiate with him. The pope would not allow Henry to divorce Catherine because it was against the religion of England to divorce. Henry wanted an annulment for his marriage, some evidence that shows that Henry was expecting the pope to grant him the annulment because he told Catherine his plan, agreed to marry Anne after the annulment, applied to the pope for an allowance to marry Anne. All these actions shows Henry had no problem gaining the cancellation. A new religion was created by Henry VIII, called Protestant.
Although, there was no lack of other factors – such as finance and religion – that also led to the deterioration of the relationship. Buckingham’s Policies continued to develop a fundamental rift with parliament when he supported Richelu in his campaign against the protestant hueganauts and because he was perceived as the kings favourite by parliament the actions of Buckingham only exacerbated the relations between parliament and the crown. Relations between England and France quickly deteriorated when in 1627, Louis XIII was displeased with Charles’s failure to fully extend the promised toleration to Catholics, and Charles was annoyed at Louis for using English ships in the suppression of the Huguenots. Buckingham had also tried to seduce the French Queen, however, the element that had a tremendous impact on the
One of this war's causes was the nearly tacit public opinion, as well as the Parliament's, that they should support the Protestants due to Elizabeth (James's daughter) and Frederick - both involved in the war. The people and monarchy started to disagree, resulting into a loss of balance in the whole land. Catholics also earned themselves a bad image due to the gunpowder plot, once again creating a scarce relationship between them and the Protestants. However, it's common logic that the situation would be conflictual, as two forms of Christianity were impossible to coexist. As it was nearly impossible for James to neglect the conflicts, he attempted to marry his son Henry to a Spanish princess (dynastic marriage), the scope being to bring Protestants and Catholics at peace.