After World War II, the United Nations (UN) was established on the 26th of June 1945. The main reason for the establishment was to maintain world peace and prevent wars to occur. Other reasons for the establishment were to promote cooperation in solving international economic, social and humanitarian problems. The UN consists of 192 member states, including every sovereign state in the world. The UN has six different principal organs, and in the Peace Support Operations (PSO) context the General Assembly and the Security Council are the most important ones.
The human rights regime has been a branch of International Law since 1945. This regime lies upon the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted with a resolution of the UN General Assembly, but paradoxically lacking of a restrictive force. However, to resolve this defect, two new resolution were adopted by the United Nations in 1966: the PIDESC (protection of economic, social and cultural rights) and the PIDCP (protection of civil and political rights). These treaties led to a semi-institutionalised regime represented by the “Comité des Droits Humains des Nations Unies”, which operates a strict control over the Countries' engagement in respecting them. The International Law regime was also reinforced by the adoption of the 4 Treaties of Geneva, in 1949.
The European Union constitution was designed to bring together all of the treaties and rules previously agreed. The basic idea was to create a closer relationship between all the member states of the European Union to the extent of the European Union becoming one single state. The plan for the European Union to become an entity in its own right would mean that countries within the European Union would no longer have an individual say in organizations such as the United Nations. The constitution was originally believed to bring countries closer together, however it seems more likely that the real reason behind it was
Evaluate the contributions made by the Human Right Act 1998 to the development of English law. Human Rights were formed for the protection of the fundamental civil and political liberties in societies, committed to the rule of law. The European Convention of Human Rights was drawn up by the European Council, which was established after the Second World War, in 1953. It has now over 40 signatories, including the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA 1998) came into force in October 2000.
Its Charter was adopted on the 26 June 1945 and signed by the representatives of 51 countries. However, due to the rise in decolonisation, many states gained their independence and admitted into the Unites Nations which resulted in an increase of 51 members in 1945 to 185 in 1997. As an intergovernmental organisation the United Nations offers the world a scheme of global governance with its fundamental missions including the maintenance of international peace and security, the development of friendly relations among nations, and the cooperation in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights and to be the centre for harmonising the actions of nations. The United Nations does not make laws as it is not a world government. The United Nations does, however, provide means to help resolve international conflicts and formulate policies on matters affecting the entire world.
The first amendment initially, only utilized the laws established by the Congress. “A constitutional amendment must first be proposed, and then it must be ratified” (93). In 1925, the first amendment was assigned to every state. The Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment allowed this to happen. “The freedom of speech is protected in the first amendment of the Bill of Rights and is guaranteed to all Americans” (ACLU 1).
LAW IN A WORLD OF MULTIPLE LEGAL ORDERS ARE HUMAN RIGHTS UNIVERSAL? Right after the dramatic events of the Second World War, the international community became aware that Humanity was threatened from the inside. Therefore, this was to be a real turning point in the history of the legal world, since it appeared necessary to build up a Human Rights global regime, enabling each human being to be immunized against fundamental rights’ violation. The first step of this universal political project was to define the framework of such a regime by drawing up basic principles: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights – adopted by the UN General Assembly on the 10th of December 1948 – consists of a list of the fundamental rights and reaffirms in its preamble the inalienable and universal respect of fundamental human rights. Theoretically, these rights are considered to be the rights that one has simply because one is human.
One can distinguish between the effect of the Act in the courts, its effect on Parliament, its effect on public authorities, and its effect on people and groups in society. These are related but distinct areas. All are important, having regard to three factors. First, the Government intended the Act to do more than provide legal remedies for violations of Convention rights. It hoped that the Act would introduce a culture of human rights in the public service, as the rights were ‘mainstreamed’ and became an intrinsic part of decision-making and planning in all parts of the public sector.
At that time all the students going abroad for study had to pass a test of national ethics. Moral education in Korea is guided by the legal document of national curriculum enacted by the central government (the Ministry of Education). In the curriculum, every aspect of moral education is specified in detail: the aims, objectives, teaching methods, contents [lists of virtues}, evaluation, and allocation of time for every grade level and school. The year of 1945 is considered as a watershed for dividing traditional (Confucian) and modern (western) moral education in *This article was presented at the 2nd International Conference on Moral Education at Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, Japan in August, 1995. 2 THE SNU JOURNAL OF EDUCATION RESEARCH Korea (Moon, 1990).
Today, visualizing that Malaya is still under Malayan Union, the English language will be more superior to Malay language. English will be the first language for Malaya and will be taught at schools; less emphasizing on the Malay language. Besides that, British will rule Malaya as if it is their own country regardless of how different the point of view of the West and East are. With Jus Soli based citizenship, the Malays will protest as they will find it unfair that the foreigners will be recognized as Malayans and that there are equal rights for all citizens regardless of race and origin. The Malays are the natives or Bumiputeras thus they will fight for their rights and will want to have more privilege than that of other race and origins.