In addition, World War II introduced change through industrialisation, which was key to Russia’s success in the war. These key reforming leaders and other factors of change saw Russia grow from a very deprived country in 1856 to an industrial superpower in 1964. Alexander II became known as ‘Alexander the Great Reformer’ and ‘the Tsar Liberator’ which suggests that his work and reforms changed the nature of Russian government and society to a large extent. The emancipation of the Serfs in 1861 initially appeared to have major benefits for the serfs. As Alexander II said: “We vowed in our hearts to fulfil the mission which is entrusted to Us and to surround with Our affection and Our Imperial solicitude all Our faithful subjects of every rank and condition”2.
Looking at repression, the problems they dealt with and how they solved them: the terrorist attacks and harsh punishments, reform groups and the black hundreds and finally the revolutionary ideas and closing of newspapers and trade unions. Then I will consider the reforms: poor, unhappy peasants and the abolishment of redemption payments and freeing of communes, underproductive agriculture and ‘The Peasant Land Bank’ and lastly the effect of the Duma. Overall I think that both the repressions and reforms had equal impact in stabilising Russia, but are also dependant on each other. Firstly, Repression, Russia had a terrorist problem during and following the 1905 revolution. In 1907, 1,200 government officials were murdered in political terrorist attacks by revolutionaries.
“Why did the Bolsheviks win the Civil War?” Bolsheviks were one of the oppositions of the Tsar who were led by Lenin. They were one of the minor groups who were against the Tsar but then their supporters and followers had increased making them stronger and invulnerable. They’ve fought for what they thought was right and this led them to the success they’ve always wanted – taking over Russia. But at the end of the year 1918, a civil war occurred between the Red Army who were mainly the Bolsheviks, and the White Army who were consisted of the Social Revolutionaries, Mensheviks, supporters of the Tsar, workers and capitalists, and the Americans, British and French. The White Armies had outnumbered the Red Armies but the Red Army still managed to win the Civil war.
A study of Russian governments in the period 1855 – 1964 suggests that Russia simply exchanged one form of autocracy for another after 1917. How far do you agree? When the February revolution brought an end to Tsarist rule, there was a strong belief that the instatement of the Provisional Government would lead to a more democratic Russia. However in deposing the Provisional Government, the October Revolution had removed any such hope. The totalitarian Government of the Communist Party continued and intensified many aspects of the Tsarist regime including use of the secret police and an intolerance for opposition and democracy in general.
Arguably Russia’s transformation from an autocratic state to a communist one was the greatest modification in the whole period 1855 to 1964, however, despite differing ideals there was in fact a large amount of continuity between the idealistically different styles of governance. Under Tsarist leaders, Russia experience differing levels of autocratic rule, interspersed with sporadic detours to democracy, yet upon the Communist takeover, there was a decisive shift towards autocratic dictatorship. Taking all this into consideration, the October Revolution can be seen as the most significant turning point in the development of Russian government, as the ideological shift influenced all subsequent decisions taken by the government of the USSR. Ideologically, the October Revolution in 1917 represented a unique turning point from Russia, as a 300 year old regime was unceremoniously discarded in favour of Marxism. Condemning the provisional government in his April Thesis, Lenin moved quickly to ensure the Bolshevik takeover was complete, consolidating
The first social revolution came about during a period of great change not only in Russia but throughout Europe. These changes developed across a wide spectrum, such as from religion to politics, from economic development and from changes in the societies of Europe as a whole. A lot of the change occurred on the back of the industrial revolution and the competition between the various powers in Europe to be the best, the strongest and the most advanced, both socially and technologically. This essay will try to give and insight into the background of the socialist revolution; what were the main triggers or causes which eventually led to the conflict, what were the main challenges which the Russian empire faced at the time. This will be explored alongside the ways in which developments in revolutionary methods were to the fore throughout Europe during this period.
Why did the Reds win the Russian Civil War? When the Bolsheviks (known as the Reds) came to power in November 1917, they started to set out new policies and make new rules such as closing the Constituent Assembly. These new ways of running Russia, were disliked by many and by the summer of 1918 Russia was in the state of the Civil War. The Reds managed to win the civil war in the end. The main reasons for why the Reds won the Civil War the geographical factors affecting the war, support for the Bolsheviks and the Red Army and crucially were the leadership of Trotsky.
The success of the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War was due to Lenin, Trotsky and their combined political, social and military capabilities as they were experts. They introduced various political and military policies that enabled them to raise support in Russia and create a dominant and successful military force. Both leaders showed immense dedication to the socialist cause and in doing so provided ruthless and brilliant leadership that ensured Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War. Peasant support for the Bolsheviks was a result of the Whites political and social faults. Firstly, the Whites treated the peasant class harshly, they did not see the advantage of gaining the support of the larger lower class as about 82% and they did not take full advantage of that.
The Russian revolution in October 1917 was due to the effective leadership of the Bolsheviks. To what extent do you agree with this statement? Plan of Investigation This investigation explores the question “The Russian revolution in October 1917 was due to the effective leadership of the Bolsheviks. To what extent do you agree with this statement?” The Russian revolution in October 1917, led by the Bolsheviks marked the end of Tsarist in Russian and the beginning of communism. This investigation will deal with the origins of the Russian revolution in the months of 1917, and address the political, social and economic causes of the Bolshevik revolution.
Russia’s early hopes were soon dashed however. Russia’s best chance of victory came at the very beginning of the war when a large number of German troops were invading Belgium and France, but instead of ceasing this opportunity the Russian generals blundered into defeat after defeat. Russia’s dreams of a swift victory were all but crushed in the Tannenberg and Masurian disasters that set the stage for further defeats in 1915. The First World War was a new type of war, a war dominated by modern technology, technology that the Russians were struggling with. Meanwhile the Germans were making massive advancements in both new technology and it’s utilisation but also the strategic aspects of