To label someone is to attach a meaning or definition to them. Studies show that teachers often attach labels to pupils regardless of their ability or attitude, but instead based on stereotyped assumptions about their class background, labelling working-class pupils negatively and middle-class pupils positively. Howard Becker carried out an important study on labelling and found that teachers judged pupils according to how closely they fitted an image of the ‘ideal pupil’. We can see how the process of labelling can affect pupils by looking at Aaron Cicourel and Johm Kitsuse’s study of educational councillors. The study found that the counsellor judged pupils largely on their social class; this therefore put them at a disadvantage as middle-class students were placed on higher level courses.
Payne states that impoverished students face inequality at school, insinuating that the school should be responsible for helping to provide for these students so that they can have a better education. Gorski sees that responsibility lies most likely with us, who can aid teachers in offering a hand, as they are underpaid and are not able to do much on their own. The two authors have clashing ideas as to why students are in poverty: Payne believes that the impoverished students are lazy and have their own set of
She challenged her students to show their intelligence. She believed that they were victims of circumstance. Mike Rose found this inspiring. He goes on to say, “ If you get closer to their failure, you'll find knowledge that the assignment didn't tap, ineffective rules and strategies that have a logic of their own; you'll find clues, as well, to the complex ties between literacy an culture, to the tremendous difficulties our children face as they attempt to find their places in the American educational system.” When reading over this, I find that it is true, that if teachers took the time to find out why a student is failing, instead of just deeming them hopeless or incoherent, that they may find out that these students have much more potential than they originally thought. Not all students learn the same way, therefore, teachers need to try different ways to to teach the material.
By showing to the readers that he was once a public school teacher it helps them see him as an expert giving his own expert opinion. He stresses that the public school system is doing the youth of this generation an injustice. He does this through analyzing the goals of education, not schooling. He uses the third goal a lot which is to make each person their best that they can be. He also says the today’s school system suppresses the word genius.
There is also the need for training and the interviewer needs to have a background into education increasing the cost. As a result a small sample will be studied in comparison to other methods like questionnaires. This means that it will not be representative so cannot be generalised to different pupil subcultures. Willis’ qualitative methods enable him to find out about working class pupils resisting attempts to indoctrinate them in school. Theses ‘lads’ formed a counter school subculture that was opposed to school and showed this by flouting school rules for example truanting.
Assess the importance of school factors such as racism and pupils’ responses to racism in creating ethnic differences in educational achievement The differences in educational attainment between different groups of pupils have been a major focus of much sociological research. These differences can often be seen to be largely due to different social class, but also gender or ethnicity. Social class is the most significant and dominant factor when looking at these differences, but ethnicity also has a relative impact on educational achievement Education has a key role to play in eradicating racism and valuing diversity and it a responsibility for all educational establishments, including those with few or no ethnic minority pupils. Promoting racial equality demands a whole school approach and commitment from all those who are involved in the life and work of their school. Racism is linked to the educational achievement of minority ethnic groups, however the connections are complex.
This whole cut and dry teaching, what is wrong and what is right in education. But is this to say we are “dumbing down education” to meet standard test and better scores and rankings. The slang expression of “dumbing down” describes the deliberate diminishment of the intellectual level of the content of literature, film, schooling and education, news, and other aspects of culture. I believe that there are many factors why Americans rankings are so low. Education has dumbed down but there are so many different aspects of the situation, fingers pointed on why this has happened.
Many sociologists have linked labelling in school, especially by teachers, with the difference in achievements in terms of ethnicity. Negative stereotypes and labels may cause teacher to treat students from an ethnic minority differently, which could in turn, disadvantage them and ultimately, result in them underachieving. Studies from different sociologists back up and support this. Gillborn and Youdell (2000) found in their studies that teachers were more likely to discipline black students quicker than they would with their white counterparts, due to the fact that teachers held “racialised expectations”. They argued that they stereotyped and expected black students to present behaviour such as threatening and challenging authority, which leaves the student feeling underestimated and picked on.
For example, the author uses sarcasm to point out the lack of support for students when he quotes, “Our public high schools place too much focus on preparing kids for professional careers.” The author later criticizes the unorganized approach teachers take towards the discipline and teaching of students when he quotes, ‘"Educators do a lot to ensure that the most hopeless students slip through the cracks... Arbitrary rules, irregularly enforced discipline, and pointless paperwork are just the first things that come to mind. "’ 2. What rhetorical strategies does the writer use to achieve this satire? List them, and explain how each is used.
After Martin Luther King Jr's death, Jane Elliott wanted to teach his class racism. Instead of lecturing children about racism, it was an experience. She told the children that people with blue eyes were better than people with brown eyes. Children believed and blue-eyed children began to treat children with brown eyes in a negative way. This caused a change in behavior with children with brown eyes.