Asda Essay

656 Words3 Pages
Antiquity 3,050 BC-900 BC For at least ten thousand years, the Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations in the world. Even today, its architectural monuments, which include Great Pyramid and the Great Sphinx, are the largest and most famous buildings in the world. Characteristics Due to the lack of wood, the two predominant building materials used in ancient Egypt were unbaked mud brick and stone. From the Old Kingdom , stone was generally reserved for and temples, while bricks were used even for royal palaces, fortresses, the walls of temple precincts and towns, and for subsidiary buildings in temple complexes. Therefore, our impression of ancient Egyptian architecture is based mainly on its religious monuments, massive structures characterized by thick, sloping walls with few openings. Although the use of the arch was developed during the fourth dynasty, all monumental buildings are supported by the external walls and the closely spaced columns. The exterior walls, as well as the columns, were covered with hieroglyphic and pictorial carvings in brilliant colors. Many motifs of Egyptian ornament are symbolic, such as the scarab, or sacred beetle, the solar disk, and the vulture. Other common motifs include palm leaves, the papyrus plant, and the buds and flowers of the lotus. Influence upon European architecture Egyptian architecture had a strong influence on Graeco-Roman design. Later, Ancient Egyptian architecture has had influence upon the architecture and art of medieval Europe, notably in the early 17th century, when Renaissance designers brought elements of Egyptian art into the ornamentation of castles and other fine buildings. Examples of this phenomenon are found at Glamis Castle and Muchalls Castle in Scotland, where caryatid figures are incorporated into the overmantle plasterwork. These plasterwork

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