‘[M]an is a somnambulist’” (Asch, 1955, p. 2). In this article, Bernheim talked about hypnosis as an extreme form of psychological process called “suggestibility” (Asch, 1955, p. 2). The first experiment used a technique that followed a simple plan in which the subjects, “[mainly] college students, were asked to give their opinion on various matters and later they were asked again to state their choices but this time, they were told of authorities or other large peer groups” (Asch, 1955, p. 3). Asch (1955) stated “often the alleged consensus was fictitious” (p. 3). At the end, most of the subjects directed their views to that of the majority.
In this situation, we look to others for information about how to behave. This is called informational social influence. Asch(1951) designed an experiment to see whether people would conform to a majority’s incorrect answer in an unambiguous task. He carried out the experiment with an independent group design. In group of eight, participants judged line lengths by saying out loud which comparison line(1,2,3)matched the standard line.
Group dynamics is a system of behaviours that occurs between social groups. The main study of group dynamics is useful in understanding decision making behaviour. There has been many theories relating to group dynamics. Kurt Lewin( 1943, 1948, 1951) was the first one to study groups scientifically. He first used the term group dynamics to describe the way groups and individuals react in different circumstances.
Allport, in an attempt to define social psychology said it scientifically tried to explain the cognitions of the individual (for example behaviours) and how they are “influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of human beings” (Allport, 1954). In this essay I intend to start with writing about a few different social psychologists and a couple of famous studies to give a bit of background, before the crisis in social psychology. I then aim to develop this into showing what brought about the crisis - its contributions; I will address the various critiques of early experimental social psychology. After the contributions I will write about what happen after the “crisis” and assess if it had a big outcome on the discipline of social psychology. Social psychology has in roots in the beginning of the 20th century in America.
For instance; we are able to learn how stereotypes are formed, why there is racism, and also how a person’s behavior changes in different types of situations. Social psychology differs from other forms of psychology because it uses a scientific method and the empirical study of social phenomenon. General and clinical psychologies both rely on anecdotal observations and subjective interpretations. Psychologists focus on different situations and the different variables that may affect social behavior. Sociology differs from social psychology because sociology specifically looks at the different social behaviors and the surrounding influences at more of a broader view.
Every participant was exposed to the controlled experimental conditions. Groups 1+7 ABC 2 ACB 3+8 BAC 4 BCA 5 CAB 6 CBA Materials The materials used were paper and a stop watch. Procedure 1)Once received the briefed and given the equipment go to an area where it is quit 2)Take it in turns to read through the three papers as quickly as you can 3)While having someone time you 4) Record your results. Results Biased sample- the sample consisted only of students of a particular age range which meant that the results gained are only valid for this population. The results are not generalisable to the whole population.
This science has allowed for collected data and theories to be tested and proven on the effects of exterior motives that implement individual behavior. Define social psychology Social psychology concentrates on individual behavior in a social context. Baron, Byrne & Suls (1989) define social psychology as “the scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behavior in social situations”. (p. 6). Social psychologist observe human behavior and significance of influence by outside sources such as people, society, environment, and culture.
Rapport and Counselling Relationship Swinburne ID: 7739273 Swinburne University of Technology Word Count: 2145 Abstract The term “counselling” might have an ambiguous meaning to someone who has not undergone therapy or attended a class on counselling before. Even top psychotherapists and other experts in this field express seemingly differing opinions when asked to define what counselling is. At the heart of all the various approaches though,lay the fact that the counsellor facilitates growth and self-awareness of the client.The essay has highlighted three literature reviews from different authors on what counselling is and go on to demonstrate professional preference on the definition of counselling. This will be followed up by a discussion on the importance of a helping relationship as defined in Carl Roger’s book “On Becoming a Person.” . Lastly, the author has shared and reflected on a period when empathic communication was a challenge that had to be overcome .
ATTRIBUTION THEORY: “Attribution theory deals with how the social perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events. It examines what information is gathered and how it is combined to form a causal judgment” (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) In simpler words, it means how and why ordinary people explain events like they do. Heider (1858) believed that people are pretty much naïve psychologists who are trying to make sense of the world. People have a habit of seeing cause and effect even when there is none. By cause he means WHY something happens and by effect he means WHAT happens.
Maslow offers the following description of self-actualization: Maslow (1968): Some of the characteristics of self-actualized people Although we are all, theoretically, capable of self-actualizing, most of us will not do so, or only to a limited degree. Maslow (1970) estimated that only two present of people will reach the state of self-actualization. He was particularly interested