Freudian psychoanalytic theory, on the other hand, had tended to de-emphasize conscious thought. Advances in behavioral science and experimental psychology had brought up questions of the main assumptions of psychoanalysis, and new theories of the human mind were coming. “There are actually several kinds of Cognitive-Behavioral therapies and they all employ the same general premise: in contrast to the psychodynamic emphasis on insight into unconscious motivation, the cognitive-behavioral therapies emphasize the ability of people to make changes in their lives without having to understand why the change occurs. “ Research into human emotion had found that people’s thoughts, beliefs, and assumptions about events are important in guiding emotional experience (Carson, B.M. 2000).
Freud believed that the unconscious is a component of the mind that the individual is unaware of, but which manifests through behaviour: “infantile wishes, desires, demands and needs that are hidden from consciousness awareness because of the conflicts and pain they would cause if they were part of everyday life” (Feldman, 1993, p. 381). The aim of PDT is to unearth and release emotional thoughts and feelings ‘repressed’ in the unconscious. In order to use this method, an essential element of PDT is the creation of a safe environment for the recalling of repressed childhood memories (Bergmann, 2010). In psychoanalytic theory the therapy relationship, explicitly the analysis of the patients’ transference to the therapist is fundamental to the work. Transference is the client’s repetition of past patterns of relating to significant others that are brought to the present in relation to the therapist (Jacobs, M, 2004).
Both Freud and Jung were drawn to the unconscious way of explaining dreams. Jung thought dreams contained significant insight into an individual's psyche. Unlike Freud, it is the aspect of personality, conscious and embodies the sense of self therefore; Jung is less sexually focused, he is spiritual and also believed that Freud focuses on sexuality as a motivation. Jung also believed that individuals are programmed to discover and accept certain truths within themselves and their ancestor’s experiences. Jung's theory was considered the analytic psychology which describes archetypes.
Probably because of Freud’s characterization of the artist’s mind as “one urged on by instincts that are too clamorous,” psychoanalytic criticism written before 1950 tended to psychoanalyze the individual author. Literary works were read—sometimes unconvincingly—as fantasies that allowed authors to indulge repressed wishes, to protect themselves from deep-seated anxieties, or both. After 1950, psychoanalytic critics began to emphasize the ways in which authors create works that appeal to readers’ repressed wishes and fantasies. Consequently, they shifted their focus away from the author’s psyche toward the psychology of the reader and the text. Norman Holland’s theories, concerned more with the reader than with the text, helped to establish reader-response criticism.
Psychoanalysis is a type of psychological therapy which is part of the psychodynamic approach. Freud influenced many on how the mentally ill should been portrayed. He therefore developed psychoanalysis which involved talking through problems. This then developed into different types of therapies- dream analysis, free association and transference. The psychodynamic therory states that the unconscious comes out in dreams.
That said, why is there such debate and why is the opinion that counselling may sometimes be regarded by some as the poor relation to Psychotherapy? Counselling v Psychotherapy - Who’s Who? - BACP The BACP currently offers no distinction between Counselling and Psychotherapy, opting to use the umbrella term ‘therapist’. They state ‘that perhaps differences can only really be found at the level of the individual therapists’ daily practise, not at the wider level of definable principles’. E.g., a therapist may deal with deeper psychological issues in a formalised setting, i.e.
Therefore, the primary focus of this essay is to describe hypnosis and both the psychological and physical components at work. The role of relaxation within hypnotherapy will thereafter be discussed. What is hypnosis? Historically, the concept of healing by an altered state of awareness hasn’t changed for millennia. However, our understanding and ability to control it has changed profoundly.
As it focuses on conscious experiences it is able to help a person have a healthy transition from reactionary behaviours to thoughtful actions. It reflects the clients feelings back to them. Psychodynamic theory The psychodynamic approach was founded by psychologist Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalysis was the original psychodynamic theory but the psychodynamic approach as a whole is based upon theories from his ideas. These came from Jung, Erikson and Adler.
Supporting study and corroboration of the discipline has been a main focal point for Kaplan. Kaplan not only has experience but familiarity in art psychotherapy. Kaplan devotes her time to helping people through oriented art activities as well as, helping people through emotional and cognitive deficits through art. Kaplan also suggests an art based theory rather then based on psychotherapeutic which somewhat resolves the debate involving art in therapy verses art as therapy. It is in this chapter that Kaplan reveals her knowledge of and experience with art psychotherapy, but it seems to this writer that she also reveals her ambivalence regarding her professional identity.
That’s a good thing, because it means that, as an adult, people can choose to learn some new behaviors and new defense mechanisms that may be more beneficial to them in their lives. The concepts of defense mechanisms in psychotherapy originated in the psychodynamic theories of Sigmund Freud, and his daughter Anna Freud wrote about it at length in The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense. Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality proposes that defense mechanisms prevent the ego from being overwhelmed. Defense mechanisms can be good in that they allow us to adjust to our environment. Or, they can become a problem when they prevent us from facing and living in reality.