He describes government in such a way that nearly, but not entirely, advocates anarchy. Paine calls government, “even in its best state [a] necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one;” (6). He attempts to predispose the reader’s mind to new ideas of government, namely one that involves American independence from England. Paine accomplishes this through an ideal definition and concept of government. He describes the purposes of government such as protection of property and citizens.
"3 Aristotle called this moderate mixed constitution a polity and believed that it would best serve the common interest of all citizens in most states. Aristotle believed that the middle class should hold the greatest share of power because they do not covet their neighbors possessions, as the poor do, and the possessions of the middle class are not coveted for nor do they plot against each other; they are the most neutral among the classes, and “pass through life safely”.4 ____________________ 1 Aristotle, "Politics," Primary Sources, 7-8 2 Aristotle, "Politics," Primary Sources, 7-8 3 Aristotle, "Politics," Primary Sources, 7-8 4 Aristotle, "Politics," Primary Sources, 7-8 2. In Plato’s work, The Republic, he believed a just society must be under the control of society’s most cultivated and best informed minds, its “lovers of wisdom”, they cannot be run by big money or armed forces with their narrow agendas. 1 Plato also believed that limitless desire for wealth and blind ambition must be watched and contained as potential public dangers. The most informed minds must determine objectively, with due consideration of all points of view, what the most healthy and
Locke believed the power of the government came from the people and if the people are not happy with government actions then they have every right to overthrow the government. Locke believed people could survive in a natural state with no government but if the people like the government it can exist to benefit them. . (Locke, Chap. 4 Pg.
Niccolò Machiavelli’s ‘The Prince’ is an explanation to rulers on how to take power over other lands and how to control them, often at times advocating a disregard for all moral and ethical rules. It was this work that gave rise to the term ‘Machiavellian’, for in it he describes the sly and sometimes brutal maneuverings necessary for political success . In this essay I will examine whether Machiavelli truly promotes ‘immoral’ means in politics and war, determine if there is actually an amoral or even moral approach present in ‘The Prince’, and contrast Machiavelli’s moral and political understandings against earlier European views. In ‘The Discourses’ when speaking of the clashes between the Roman aristocracy and the plebeians Machiavelli’s sympathies are evidently on the side of the common people. He continually defends the people against the accusations of fickleness and unpredictability; stating that the custodianship of public freedom is safer in the hands of the plebeians than that of the upper class.
John Locke was a great philosopher and the father of Classical Liberalism. In his work “Second Treatise of Civil Government” many of his values. His ideas had the intention of making all men free and equal, the foundation of the law in Virginia Declaration of Rights, Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. The Constitution of the United States was directly influenced by Locke’s work in that he believed that when people give up complete freedom and some rights to form a government and elect people in authority to act in this government. Whoever refuses to follow these laws will be punished accordingly.
In this paper I will analytically examine Thrasymachus’ stance and use critical thought to support his valid claims while rejecting those which lack validity within Thrasymachus’ own definition of justice. Thrasymachus opens with the fairly pessimistic claim that justice or “what is right” is the advantage of the stronger. (Plato, 18) Governments use their power solely to enact laws that benefit themselves and those whom are under their direct influence – a tyrannical government puts into place authoritarian and brutal laws, a democratic government abides by libertarian and just laws, and et cetera. Failing to follow these rules laid out by the domineering government will label you as a wrongdoer and traitor to the state. This is because the ruling class only want to benefit their own selfish causes.
However, he noticed during his travel in America that the American democratic government had some dangers. In his book, Tocqueville were focus on the tyranny of the majority over minorities, the development of bad tendencies such as individualism and materialism but all those derived from a major problem which is the structure of the government that maintains liberty and equality in America. The fundamental principle of democracy is the sovereignty of the majority and that what Tocqueville states by saying in the beginning of the chapter seven that “The absolute sovereignty of the majority is the essence of democratic government, in democracy, nothing outside the majority is capable of mounting resistance to it”3. According to that statement, there is only one way to run the society and all decisions have to be on the will of the majority. But this led to despotism.
Plato and Aristotle believed that a fear did, run though liberals as they viewed democracy as a system of rule by the masses, thus an implication of individualism; seeing society as not as single individual entities but rather a collection of individual groups, possessing opposing interest. This in turn leads to Ortega y Gassets warning of the arrival of mass democracy, which had lead to the overthrowing of civilized society and moral order. As a consequence allowing authoritarian rulers come to power, appealing to the basest instincts of the masses; ‘mobocracy’. This therefore is a fear and reservation most liberals have towards democracy. ‘Liberal democracy’ embodies a whole range of doctrines and devices that actually seek to restrain popular rule and prevent government from flexing direct will of majority.
He believed that a powerful government should be divided into three branches. The Legislative branch made laws and was made up of National Assembly; Executive branch was made up of the King, with limited power, who enforces the laws. The Judicial branch was made up of judges that interpret laws to the people. The second cause of the French Revolution was due to the financial crisis. King Louis XVI had bankrupt the French by supporting the American Revolution.
Abuses by the sovereign power are acceptable as long as it maintains peace within the society. According to Thomas Hobbes, the sovereign power has control over judicial, military and civil matters. Because the subjects of the civil society gave up their freedom of decision in order for the sovereign power to act for them, the individuals cannot break the contract between them and the sovereign, based on the actions that he undertakes in order to maintain peace within the society, but if the sovereign does not act with this principle as its goal, the subjects are allowed to break the social contract and seek the guidance of another sovereign power. The sovereign power is above the common law, as it is him that creates it and can simply change it at his will. He cannot be arrested or put to death by the people.