The last criticism is that the model is very linear. The model says that the only way information gets to your long term memory is like: sensory memory short term memory rehearsal loop long term memory but we know that a two way flow, rather than a one way flow, is more realistic. For
Trace decay theory states that forgetting occurs as a result of the automatic decay or fading of the memory trace. Trace decay theory focuses on time and the limited duration of short term memory. No one disputes the fact that memory tends to get worse the longer the delay between learning and recall, but there is disagreement about the explanation for this effect. According to the trace decay theory of forgetting, the events between learning and recall have no affect whatsoever on recall. It is the length of time the information has to be retained that is important.
Murdock (1962) Murdock presented participants with a list of words at a rate of about one per second. After he showed them the words, the participants were required to recall as many of the words as they could. Murdock found that the words did not have an equal chance of being recalled and that some words, especially those that appeared first and those that came up last in the list, were better recalled than those in the middle. He called this serial position effect. The superior recall of items at the start of the list is called the primary effect, whilst the superior recall of the items at the end of the list is called the recency effect.
The findings of the experiment showed that the immediate recall group remembered the first and last words best and the delayed group remembered the words from the beginning of the list best. This suggests that both groups were able to remember words that were stored in the long term memory but words at the end of the list were still in the short term memory. There is considerable research evidence for the distinction between several types of memory-store: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. Duration is a big distinction between sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. The duration for sensory memory can only hold information for a fraction of seconds, an experiment by
Seven hundred men, tough and war bitten march towards the city singing songs of war, letting the artillery boom behind them. “Oh the generals have a bloody good time, fifty feet behind the line, Hinky, dinky, parley voo!” The next day they polish the green brass buttons and oil their rifles and march off to a field to be inspected by the chief of staff. On the march back they talk about how generals die in bed. “ ‘...a little runt, aint he?’ ‘With a cushy job, too.’ ‘Bet he’s got a hundred batmen to shine his leather.’ ‘He’s got fifty medals...’ ‘Yeah but he’ll never die in a trench like Brownie and them did.’ ‘God no. Generals die in bed.’ ‘Well that’s a pretty nice place to die.’ “ Later that night the narrator explores the town on his own to get a little peace and quiet and stumbles on the door step of an old man, who lets him stay the night in exchange for tobacco, the next morning the narrator discovers that he has been put on leave.
It is everything they feel like they need back in their lives, so it drove them to take this vacation. Expecting to get a sense of direction and peacefulness from his experience, he is soon conscious of the fact that it’s going to be a lot harder then he expected. Mitch is very reluctant to shed all of his “big city” amenities and ways. Wanting the easiest and quickest solutions, as we find is the case in most people, he refuses at first to fully engage in the ways of the cowboy. This is obvious from the beginning, we see it when Mitch is faced with something he doesn’t want to do, or is put in an uncomfortable situation he deflects the responsibility with a joke.
However, if rehearsal doesn't occur then information is forgotten, lost from short term memory through the process of displacement or decay. A strength of the multi-store model are the model is influential because it has generated a lot of research into memory. However, a weakness of the multi-store model is it is oversimplified, in particular when it suggests that both short term and long term memory each operate in a single, uniform fashion. Working memory model (Baddeley and Hitch-1974) Baddeley and Hitch developed an alternative model of short term memory which they called working memory. They argued that the picture provided by the multi-store model is far too simple.
The material that is used to temporarily remember these lists is called short-term memory or working memory. The working memory stores memory in an active or temporary stage and only holds information for a short time, and is forgotten or lost without rehearsal. There are two theories in relation to forgetting, interference theory and decay theory. Simply, interference occurs when the new information causes the forgetting the old information, and the decay causes us to forget because of the passing of time and the decay of a memory. There are two types of interference that are most remarkable in psychological theory and research, retroactive interference and proactive interference.
But hardly few manage to get them fulfilled in the first attempt. For many, trying again and again makes the things. One should never get disappointed if he tastes failure in his early attempts. If he has enough confidence and faith in himself, the things will work out in the end. For example, Wright brothers when flew their first aeroplane, it was the result of their hard work.
“I just got here too late this time. He just doesn’t understand that he can’t do things like this. He just loves to climb, and he loves it when people are looking for him. I think last week was just lucky, when I got him down by singing his favourite song, ‘match in the gas tank’. It was a close call though, when his shoe dropped off, I thought we had lost him forever.” After the statement, Gilbert broke down in tears, so we let him go.