20 June 2013 The Pantheon The Pantheon in Rome is widely regarded as one of the most important buildings in history. Indeed, “the Pantheon represents the highest achievement of Roman architecture, both formally and structurally. It combines boldness, scale, and mastery of every architectural art” (Trachtenberg and Hymen 142). Its impressive architecture left a legacy: it was widely imitated in Roman tombs and temples. Its influence is also found in many other places.
They also had a political purpose as they were often built to celebrate civic power and pride, or offer thanksgiving to the patron god of a city for success in war. Ionic Doric The earliest monumental buildings in Greek architecture were the temples. Since these were solidly built and carefully maintained, they had to be replaced only if destroyed. There were two main orders of early Greek architecture, the Doric and the Ionic, and their lasting example tended to make Greek architecture conservative toward changes in design or in building technology. The Doric style, which originated around 400 BCE brought rise to a whole new type of building technique and style, and was used in mainland Greece and spread to the Greek colonies in Italy.
Carlos Sambrano Greek Architecture Greek architecture changed and influenced a lot of the architecture of today. The ancient Classical eras of Greece were undoubtedly one of the most beautiful, having left behind ideas, concepts, and art that created the foundation of what we call “western civilization”. However, the two previous millennia that lead to these ancient eras, as well as the other two millennia that succeeded them are all part of the history of Greece and have left just as rich a cultural footprint. Doric The Doric style is sturdy and its top is plain. This style was mostly used in mainland Greece and in southern Italy and Sicily.
"# With The dream of former president Georges Pompidou, this center for 20th- and 21st-century art, jarred the old Beaubourg neighborhood of Paris. Designed in the “HighTech” architectural style, the Centre was soon called the “most avant-garde building in the world.“# ￼ Figure 1: This drawing shows the front elevation of the Pompidou Centre. The design which was chosen in 1971 through an architectural design competition accommodated the best possible solution to the strict criteria set. Under the rules of the competition, the
Since Rome was not restrained because of its conquerors it was free to create whatever they wished, however they wanted. While there was still a heavy Greek influence, a style developed that was distinctly Roman, but as Rome conquered nations across the Mediterranean Sea it absorbed their styles of building and it was shown in the buildings of their capital. Imperial Rome saw the highest and lowest point in Rome’s history. But during this time an enormous number of innovative and massive structures were built that defined Rome as the dominant power in the ancient world. During this time Rome reworked its earlier principles to be used in the government and religious buildings.
Byzantine art never lost sight of this classical heritage. The Byzantine capital is known as Constantinople, and is known for its abundance of classical sculptures and the entire city was adorned with them. The subject matter of monumental Byzantine art was primarily religious and imperial. There were two themes are they are often combined, and it is believed by scholars that this is a direct result of the pious and autocratic nature of the Byzantine society, and partly too because of its economic structure. Portraits of later Byzantine emperors that decorated the interior of the sixth-century church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
By examining some their vastly different buildings, Sant'Andrea di Mantova, the Palazzo Te, and San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane respectively, we can gain a more comprehensive understanding of what is meant by all’antica architecture. All’antica or classical architecture is “derived from Antique precedents that were respected as having some kind of authoritative excellence”. Inspired by the long forgotten First Century Roman architect, engineer and author of the highly regarded De Architectura, Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (90-c. 20 BC), Alberti composed a decisive treatise, The Ten Books of Architecture (1482 AD). It celebrated and interpreted all that antique architecture was, into a modern context. All’antica elements range from the incorporation of the canonical five orders; Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite; intercolumniation; temple fronts; triumphal arch motifs; ornamentation; plan; to the more abstract notions of harmony, balance and
Starting in 1840, leading artists, designers, and critics tried to develop new approaches to architecture. Modern architecture has its roots in a number of different origins. One of the persistent ideas in 20th-century architecture, however, is the belief of many, engineers as well as architects, that "beauty could be seen in the clear expression of the structural properties of the new materials" (Curtis 25). As iron, glass, and steel became available, building construction was no longer limited to stone and wood. One structure built for the Paris World's Fair of 1889 showed this exactly.
Doric columns made somewhat of a comeback in in the 19th century and can be seen in the Northington Grange in England among other architecture. The last order is the Corinthian architecture, which is the most complex of the three. Like the Ionic, columns had large bases and fluted shafts. What sets the Corinthian apart is the very ornate capital. The capitals were decorated with leaves, flowers and scrolls.
Plovdiv, Bulgaria's second most important city, preserves the undying values of its six millenia long history. With the name of Philippopolis the city celebrated the conquest of Philip II of Macedon, but it was classical Trimonium which left indelible marks of its grandeur, still visible today scattered on the six hills of Plovdiv. The most remarkable of them rising above the city is the Antique Amphitheatre built by Emperor Mark Avrelii during the II century A.D. Its magnificant arcade adorned with marble statues is simply breath-taking. Theatre and opera performances are still staged here on warm summer nights. The Roman Stadium is also constructed during the II century and reproduces the layout in Delphi, Greece.