Archetypes Chapter 9

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CHAPTER 9 : STAR AND GALAXIES 9.1 The Sun Characteristics of the Sun | 1. At the centre of the Solar System, lies our very own star known as the Sun. 2. The Sun is nearly 110 times bigger than the Earth. 3. The Sun appears bigger and brighter than all the other stars. This is because the Sun is the nearest star to Earth. 4. The Sun is the largest object in the Solar System. The mass of the Sun is about 98% of the total mass of the Solar System. Structure of the Sun | Figure 9.1 Structure of the Sun showing some phenomena on its surface 1. The core is the innermost layer of the Sun. The temperature of this layer can rise to 15 000 000 ̊C. 2. The surface of the Sun consists of three gaseous layers: photosphere,…show more content…
The chromosphere is the layer above the visible photosphere. 2. Solar energy passes through this region on its way out from the centre of the Sun. The temperature of this layer ranges between 6 000 ̊C and 20 000 ̊C. 3. The chromosphere glows red because hydrogen gives off a reddish colour at these high temperatures. The corona 1. The corona is the extremely hot outermost layer above the chromosphere. 2. Temperatures in the corona can reach over 1 000 000 ̊C. 3. It is the thickest layer, stretching several million kilometres into space. Phenomena on the Sun’s surface | 1. Prominences, solar flares and sunspots are examples of phenomena that occur on the surface of the sun. 2. These phenomena are believed to occur because of the changes in the magnetic field of the sun. Prominences 1. Prominences are immense clouds of glowing gases that erupt from the upper chromosphere. 2. The loops or arches of gases may shoot as high as 100 000 kilometres from the surface of the Sun. This allows some of the surface gases, mainly hydrogen and helium, to escape into space. 3. Prominences can last for two to three months and can be seen during solar…show more content…
The Universe that is observed through the most powerful telescope we have today may be only a small portion of the real physical Universe. 3. If the current Big Bang theory is correct, the Universe is 15 billion years old. We can assume that the size of the Universe is about 15 biliion light years. The Universe is not permanent 1. All the stars in the galaxies in the Universe generate light and heat energy through nuclear fusion. 2. The stars shine by burning hydrogen. When the source of hydrogen in the Universe is exhausted, all the stars will burn out and die. 3. The gravity of the Universe may become so great that it will bring all matter in the Universe back together and the Universe will collapses into black holes. 4. It is, therefore, true to say that everything that exists in the Universe is not permanent. The importance of the Sun to life on Earth 1. Earth and other planets are linked to the Sun by a gravitational force. The gravitational force of the Sun is always present to keep Earth in the right position to receive light and heat from the Sun. 2. Without light and heat from the Sun, life cannot exist on Earth. 3. The Sun provides light energy and heat energy directly to living

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