Unit 4222-366 (DEM 302) Outcome 1 1. Describe how cognitive, functional and emotional changes associated with dementia can affect eating, drinking and nutrition. Firstly I will look at cognitive in reference to eating, drinking and nutrition. Some people with dementia can suffer from clinical depression and this would be a cognitive change, as an affect of depression the appetite of an individual will be affected and this may lead to someone having a small or no appetite and under eating this may lead to malnutrition and dehydration, or someone having an increase appetite which will cause over eating and may lead to someone gaining weight or becoming obese which carries many health conditions. Secondly, functional changes that may occur with someone with dementia is that they may have had a stroke or have weakness in using limbs which would affect them using utensils such as a knife and fork for instance not having the strength to lift the fork to their mouth.
It is called binge eating or compulsive eating. This is when a person feels compelled to overeat and they eat high calorie and fat food. generally eating disorders are result of stress. Unfortunately, eating disorders affect the person physically, psychologically and socially. Anxiety disorder also is the main type of mental ill health according to the psychiatric classification system.
P3 Explain specific health psychology issues Eating disorders are characterised by an abnormal attitude towards food that causes an individual to change their eating habits and their behaviour. There are several types of eating disorders that can effect an individual physically, psychologically and socially. The two eating disorders which I will be discussing is anorexia and bulimia. Anorexia is an eating disorder and a mental health condition which can be life-threatening. Anorexia is an irrational fear of gaining weight, it typically involves excessive weight loss and usually occurs more in females than in males.
Vulnerable Population and Self-Awareness Paper Monica Okoro Nur/440 July 11, 2011 Jennifer Starrett Vulnerable Population and Self-Awareness Paper Vulnerable populations are those with a greater than average risk of developing health problems (De Chesnay & Anderson, 2008). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), adolescents are the only portion of society in the United States that has not observed a decrease in mortality and morbidity during the past four decades. The CDC has outlined six risk-taking behaviors by adolescents: unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol, and drug use, tobacco use, risky sexual behaviors, poor diet, and lack of physical activity. Teenagers face health issues that stem from overweight, which contributes to other problems like heart disease and diabetes. According to Journal of Pediatrics (2010), “40% of obese children already have 2 or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
"The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV -TR defines anorexia nervosa using the following criteria, including a refusal to maintain body weight above 15% below that which is expected, an extreme fear of weight gain, despite being significantly underweight, a disturbance in body image such as feeling fat, even though the individual is underweight, and in females amenorrhea for at least three consecutive menstrual cycles". (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). What role do psychological and social factors play in the cause of anorexia nervosa? Individuals suffering from anorexia find it difficult to achieve self-esteem, asserting control and establishing a sense of identity ( Bruch, 1973). The anorexic's development becomes arrested, with their main focus of identity being focused on size and weight, which ultimately leads their life functions to diminish, with the prime focus of the anorexic being less focused on relationships and self-care (Bruch, 1973).
Introduction Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are similar in that there is an inaccurate perception of body weight, size or shape and/or marked over-concern about body weight, size or shape. However, there are differences. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by voluntary maintenance of unhealthy low weight (less than 85% of expected), cessation of menstrual periods for at least three cycles (amenorrhea), and an intense fear of weight gain or becoming fat. On the other hand, bulimia nervosa is characterized by inappropriate weight reducing behavior (vomiting, laxative or diuretic abuse, excessive exercise, fasting) at least twice a week and large uncontrolled binge eating at least twice a week.
Discuss explanations for the success and/or failure of dieting (25 marks) The cognitive behavioural approach looks to explain dieting through positive and negative thought processes. The main reason why people want to lose weight is because they have negative views on their own body image. Herman and Polivy try to explain why restraint might actually increase eating, through their boundary model, which is that when dieting there is a conflict between the physiological need for food and the cognitive control over what should be eaten whilst dieting. The problem is that after the first 5-10% initial weight los the person begins to reach a plateau and the weight loss stops. A further problem is that at this point the body’s psychological needs and desire to maintain a certain set point over ride the cognitive control of the diet.
One of the most common types of eating disorder is anorexia nervosa, where the person suffering from it lives in fear of becoming overweight, and therefore starves themselves despite being dramatically underweight. The biological explanation of anorexia nervosa proposes that such a disorder is caused by physical
Meanwhile, there’s also the condition called silent reflux, which varies from a usual heartburn. It has the same triggers but without the typical physiological indications. Instead of experiencing indigestion, people with silent reflux experience sore throats, chronic coughs, and swallowing problems. In the United States, about 50 percent of the people suffer from it. They just don’t know it.
Over time, hunger slows physical and mental development in children and leaves them more vulnerable to illness and disease. For example, respiratory and diarrhea infections are common in undernourished children, and even diseases of vitamin A deficiency, which can cause blindness, anemia, caused by iron deficiency and goiter due to iodine deficiency. Undernourished adults lose weight, are progressively weakened, and become apathetic, less creative and imaginative, and more irritable. Although acute hunger or famine receives more attention from the world’s news media, it should be remembered that the great majority of hunger deaths come not from starvation but from nutrition-related sicknesses and diseases. Hunger, malnutrition and under nutrition are all terms used to describe aspects of this problem.