General George Washington’s strategy of erosion effectively outlasted Great Britain’s will to fight a costly war on American soil. Comparatively, Great Britain wholly underestimated the colonists and did not employ a coherent strategy but rather relied on a poorly executed belief that colonial support for the war would disappear with the occupation of key American cities. Roots of the American Revolution reside in a series of laws and taxes implemented by the British government following their support of the colonies during French and Indian war. It is important to note that the French and Indian war was part of the much larger Seven Years war fought between 18th century powers Spain, Great Britain, France, and the Holy Roman Empire. While Great Britain emerged a victor of the Seven Years war, it was nearly bankrupt at its completion in 1763.
Though the odds and numbers were against the British, it was the unorganized planning and overconfidence that led to the British army to ultimately win the battle against Germany. The invasion of France ended in June 1940; it was not until over a month later that Hitler made the decision to invade Britain, because he was unsuccessful in trying to get the British to surrender. The Battle of Britain was not an immediate, necessary battle to Hitler, but because he wanted and would benefit from air superiority, he put forth the effort to fight it anyway. The small number of British forces fueled overconfidence for Germany and
“This is a white man’s country and we want it left a white man’s country.” –A W Neill (Krishna, 2009). This quote is a fine example of multiculturalism in Canada. It shows how false the policy of multiculturalism is, although we appear to have a superior image. In 1971, multiculturalism became an official policy of Canada (Mock, 1997). It states that every citizen is able to express their own culture in this country; but that doesn’t necessarily make it multicultural.
Louis David Riel Louis Riel was born at the Red River Colony on October 22, 1844. He was hung for treason on November 16, 1885 in Regina. Louis Riel was a Canadian politician and leader of the Métis people. He led two resistance movements against the Canadian government. During Red River Rebellion of 1869-1870, Riel established a provisional government to negotiate the terms under which the province of Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation.
In addition, the States had socially influenced Canada greatly, in terms of culture. Canada did gain some political independence, hampered by the fact that Canada depended on the United States for much of its social and economic success. Canada’s prime minister, Mackenzie King, did not follow the regular rules set by Britain. Instead he refused to send Canadian troops with Britain to invade Turkey in 1922. (Cranny p.55) Normally, when Britain went to war, Canada would automatically be at war as well, but King took a big step in not following orders from the mother country.
First Nations were also key forces in the military struggle between the French and British. The misconception that First Nations were a weak and inferior fighting force is a fallacy, as First Nations proved to be invaluable to both the French and English in their fight for British North America (Thunderbird n.d.). Despite the patriarchal views of many towards First Nations and their roles in the expansion of Europe into North America, First Nations did play a pivotal role in the colonizing of North America. France and Britain were the main players in the struggle to dominate North America commercially, economically as well as militarily. The abundance of fur-bearing animals in North America and demand for furs in Europe started a power struggle between the French and British (First Nations in Canada 2011).
This paper will explore the ability of the NDP to effect labour market policy through the institutions of the Canadian state. This paper will argue that because of disproportionate representation in the legislative branch, the limited influence a small party can exercise in the policy-making process, and the devolution of labour market policy-making powers to the provinces, the NDP is inhibited in influencing and instating comprehensive policy in this area. As a means of uniting the many diverse groups and interests that form Canadian labour, the Canadian Labour Congress [CLC] was formed in 1956. Although there are other groups that represent Canadian Labour, the CLC remains the largest and most influential group. In order to gain more influence over the policy-making process, the CLC and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation formed the NDP in 1962.
Not since the Riel Rebellion of 1885 had Canada seen an armed standoff of the size and scope that occurred between Indians and the military in the small town of Oka, Quebec, between May and September of 1990. The lead-up, the crisis, and the aftermath are all documented in Harry Swain’s account of the crisis in “Oka – A Political Crisis and It’s Legacy” - a self-proclaimed subjective account of the 78 day standoff between Mohawk Indians and, progressively, the Town of Oka, the Sûreté du Québec, and finally the Canadian military. Swain was Deputy Minister of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) at the time, ostensibly a key player in the negotiations between the Mohawks of the Kanesatake reserve and the Town/police/military, although he never clearly states what role he played. The 1990 version of an age-old land dispute over a sacred Mohawk common area called The Pines that the Town of Oka wanted as an expanded golf course and luxury condominium development escalated to a full armed conflict resulting in two deaths – that of a young Sûreté du Québec (SQ) officer, and an elderly Indian man, and the widening of the gulf between the local francophone and Indian populations. But it was also more than that.
He knew that the number of soldiers he had were greatly outnumbered by all the country’s armies that wanted to end his rule, so he had to act fast. Napoleon’s grand strategy was to destroy the existing coalition forces just south of Brussels, then pushing the British back to the ocean and hopefully knock the Prussians out of the war completely. At this time, this was a far-fetched idea, however everyone actually considered Napoleon pulling it off. Napoleon cut off communication between Wellington and his country through false intelligence and this avoided an envelopment plan that Wellington at originally planned to use on Napoleon after they traveled through Mons. When Napoleon moved towards the army of Prussians, he defeated them at the Battle of Ligny, basically baffling the troops.
The Nor’westers were worried that they could lose their fur supply and pemmican. In 1815 the Nor’westers tempted people to move to Upper Canada with offers of better land. The Earl of Selkirk quickly resettled the colony. Some tension between the nor’westers, with their allies the Metis, and the settlers led to violence. North West Company men and half-breeds now resorted to violence on a large scale, killing 22 in the massacre of Seven Oaks (June 19, 1816).