Released on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result this segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. As consequence of this ruling the way for integration and the civil rights movement was opened. Background Everything started with the 10-year-old Linda Brown, in Topeka, Kansas, who had to walk a whole mile through a railroad then wait for a school bus to go to a "black elementary school”, even though a white elementary school was only seven blocks away. Therefore, Linda's father, Oliver Brown, tried to enroll her in the white elementary school, but the principal of the school denied the request.
Elizabeth Eckford and eight other black students tried to enrol at Little Rock High School in Arkansas. She was stopped by the State Governor, Orval Faubus, who surrounded the school with the state National Guard. President Eisenhower sent federal troops to escort her and protect her and the other students. After a month they were replaced by National Guards men under the orders of the President, they stayed at the school for a year Why was Little Rock important? It forced President Eisenhower, who would have preferred to do nothing, to take some action.
Some provisions in that law is that it protected African Americans against discrimination in voter qualification tests. It also outlawed discrimination in motels, hotels, restaurants, theaters and all other public accommodations engaged in interstate commerce. Another provision is that it outlawed discrimination in employment in any business exceeding twenty five
The Desegregation of Little Rock, Arkansas Central High School In the summer of 1957, the city of Little Rock, Arkansas, made plans to desegregate its public schools. In 1954 the Supreme Court made a decision to strike down racial segregation in public schools, Arkansas was one of two Southern states to announce it would begin immediately taking steps to comply with the new "law of the land." By 1957, seven of its eight state universities had desegregated. Blacks had been appointed to state boards and elected to local offices. The city of Little Rock thought they could break down the barriers of segregation in its schools with a carefully developed program.
The Tinker Standard was a decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine weather a school's disciplinary actions violates student's first amendment rights. The Tinker Standard came about in December of 1965 in Des Moines, Iowa when John F. Tinker younger sister Mary Beth Tinker and friend Christopher Eckhardt decided to wear black armbands to their schools in protest of the Vietnam War and supporting the Christmas Truce called for by Senator Robert F. Kennedy. The principles of Des Moines previously adopted a policy that restricted students from wearing armbands to school. Any student who failed to follow the policy would be sent home immediately and suspended until they decided to follow the schools policy.
who was born and died January 15, 1929- April 4, 1968. In 1955 Martin Luther King Jr. accepted the leadership of the first great Nero Macon Pg. 4 Nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the United States. Martin Luther King Jr. lead a boycott that lasted 382 days and on December 21, 1956 the Supreme Court of United States had declared unconstitutional the law requiring segregation on buses, Negroes and whites rode the buses as equals. Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested during the boycott, his home was bombed and he was subjected to personal abuse.
African Americans were also hit hard by voting. As a result of this, Lyndon B. Johnson responded by signing the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which banned literacy tests and sent several voting registers into southern states. Since Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 for the African Americans, women felt left out and demanded their own civil rights act. The lack of civil rights and the Equal Employment of Operations Commission caused Betty Friedman to create the National Organization for Women (NOW). The acts that Johnson signed pushed the Civil Rights Movement forward and created new organizations such as the Black Panther Party and the National Organization for Women.
This would become more apparent after James Meredith, who started a March Against Fear from Memphis to Jackson in 1966, to protest against racism, and subsequently was shot down . Carmichael along with others picked up where Meredith left off; by the time the marchers arrived in Greenwood, Mississippi; they were arrested by the police. After Carmichaels release from jail, he would make his famous “Black Power” speech in which he called for "black people in this country to unite, to recognize their heritage, and to build a sense of community.” Even though this slogan had been used before by Richard Wright and others, this was a first for the Civil Rights Movement. From here, Carmichael’s outlook would change and he would start looking at it from a self-defense aspect and trying to rally young blacks to his cry for revolution. He started to unite these young men and women under the motto of “Black Power,” in order to develop real power within their community and prove to not only them, but also the rest of the nation that Blacks would no longer step aside and allow the Whites to continue to manipulate and dominate a system that would hinder not only them, but the Civil Rights Movement as well.
However, instead of encouraging them to join NAACP or SCLC she encouraged students to create their own organizations. By 1964, Malcolm X had broken with the Black Muslims. He then went to the Muslim Holy City, Mecca in Saudi Arabia. It was here that he concluded that an intergrated society was possible after all. Malcolm X was killed in 1965 by Black Muslim members.
The NAACP fought to have the government uphold desegregation in the US as it was said to be against the 14th and 15th amendments. And example in this was in their fight for the little rock high school to admit black students, also their fight for rosa parks bus boycott Three years after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal, nine African American students. The students were known as the Little Rock Nine, were recruited by president of the Arkansas branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP). As president of the Montgomery Improvement Association, Martin Luther King wrote President Dwight D. Eisenhower requesting a swift resolution allowing the students to attend school. On 4 September 1957 (the