Apus Ch 10 Essay

2990 WordsFeb 10, 201212 Pages
CHAPTER 10: “AMERICA’S ECONOMIC REVOLUTION” Foundations of Economic Development n before an industrial revolution occurred there need to be: n population large enough to grow its own food and provide a work force n transportation and communication system capable of sustaining it n improved technology to permit large scale manufacturing n system of business organization The American Population, 1820 - 1840 n three trends: n increasing rapidly n moving westward n moving to towns and cities n statistics: 1790 – 4 1820 – 10 1830 – 13 1840 – 17 Why Population Growth? n public health efforts had reduced the number and ferocity of epidemics n result of high birth rates 1840 – the birth rate for white women stood at 6.14 n immigration was not the key factor at this point Immigration n 1830 population of nearly 13 million, the foreign-born numbered fewer than 500,000 n started to rise after 1830 n 1832 – 60,000 n 1837 – 80,000 n reduced transportation costs and increasing economic opportunities made this possible Cities of the Northeast n immigrants remained in northeastern cities n 1790 – one person in thirty lived in a city (defined as over 8,000 people) n 1820 – one person in twenty n 1840 – one person in twelve n largest cities were in the Northeast New York City n 1810 it was the largest city in the U.S. n initially because it had the best natural harbor on the East coast n after 1825 – the completion of the Erie Canal contributed The Growth of Cities n 1840 to 1860 n population of New York City went from 312,000 to 805,000 n Philadelphia went from 220,000 to 565,000 n Boston went from 93,000 to 177,000 n by 1860, 26% of the population of free states was living in towns (over 2,500) Cities Along the Rivers n St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and Louisville grew rapidly n after the completion of the

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